what are all of the artifacts in the text and how can they be most fully described in a way acceptable to an academic paper?

The text includes various types of artifacts that could be described and analyzed in an academic paper. Here are some examples:


– “Women of the Philippines” (p. 388) – A 1911 photo of Native American women at a conference, showing their activism. Could analyze the women’s expressions, clothing, posture to understand their status and agenda.

– Ida B. Wells-Barnett (p. 329) – A formal portrait showing her intellectual bearing. Could discuss her pose, clothing, expression.

– “Immigrants at Ellis Island” (p. 401) – Shows diverse new immigrants. Could analyze their appearance, possessions, emotions.

– “Jacob Riis photos” (pp. 408-14) – Urban images exposing poverty. Could discuss purposes, methods, evoked responses.

– “College Settlement House” (p. 425) – Shows settlement house classroom. Could discuss gender, class, ethnicity, activities.

– “Women’s Trade Union League” (p. 431) – Working-class and middle-class activists together. Could discuss clothing, status, collaboration.

– “Triangle Shirtwaist Fire” (p. 433) – Gruesome image of fire’s victims. Could discuss emotional impact, social change effected.

– “Suffragists Marching” (p. 449) – Demonstrates public presence. Could analyze appearance, banners, spectacle.

– “Picketing the White House” (p. 453) – Suffrage radicals. Could discuss methods, provocative signs, goals.

Government Documents:

– Dawes Act (p. 359) – Provided for allotment of Native lands. Could analyze goals, results, effects on Native women.

– Page Law (p. 401) – Banned Chinese women’s immigration. Could discuss anti-Asian bias, gender and immigration.

– Muller v. Oregon (p. 422) – Upheld women’s work hours limits. Could analyze gender stereotypes invoked, effects.


– WWI posters (pp. 470-74) – Patriotic images recruiting support. Could discuss gender ideals conveyed, groups excluded.


– “The Awakening” (p. 437) – Suffrage map shows movement’s progress. Could discuss symbolism, rhetoric, message.

So in analyzing artifacts, I would focus on the purpose, message, design, emotional impact, and social/historical significance.

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