There’s a number of methods. Politics is one method. Science is another method. Negotiations. Conversations. Comparing. Relating.
The flaw however, is in your original question.
“the action of thinking about something in a logical, sensible way.”
Ok. What’s logical? Is it a system from the 19th century? It could be. It doesn’t have to be.
See the problem?
It goes around and around.
The scientific method is *a way”. But it’s fallacious to believe “a way” is “The Way”.
For example, the Sciences work terribly in a court situation. They’re fine for supporting evidence – and evidence in a court hearing is *different than* what’s considered evidence in the sciences, even if there is much overlap.
Can you use any of the Sciences to determine intent?
What about a “reasonable sentencing”?
It’s consensus of some sort. Within the Sciences, it is also a matter of consensus. It’s a special KIND of consensus uniquely suitable for its purposes.