Well, I see humans sometimes as simple machines.
We have anticipation/expectation mechanisms always functioning.
We have receptors that bring in reality.
Then we have comparators inbetween.
[yes, it’s a computational metaphor]
When the anticipation doesn’t match up to reality, we react.
In short, these reactions are expansions of cognitive dissonance.
Of course, computational metaphors aren’t as fun as evolutionary ones smile emoticon