The “problem” itself is not well-defined with agreed objectives such that efficient means to achieve the objectives can be constructed. In the above examples, even non-optimizing methods such as critical path analysis or simulation could not be used.
The situations all involve several interested parties whether they are departments within the organization or cooperating (or conflicting) external bodies. These generally hold different perspectives about the problem situation.
There are many uncertainties and often a lack of reliable (or indeed any) data.
“Success” can only be seen in terms of agreement among the parties involved to undertaking particular courses of action. The process is primarily one of learning and negotiation rather than the technical solution of a problem. It often involves facilitated workshops of concerned stakeholders.
ANALOGIZE TO BRAIN SYSTEMS. SHOULDN’T BE HARD TO START. -KEN 6/2/13