The history of the language, “Dragon” [English Translation of history of Drakon]

The history of the language, “Dragon”

Date of publication of the article: 30.11.2006

Language DRAGON developed jointly by the Russian Space Agency (Scientific-Production Center of Automatics and Instrument Academician NA Pilyugin, Moscow) and the Russian Academy of Sciences (Institute of Applied Mathematics Academician Keldysh, Moscow).

Language DRAGON was created primarily as a tool that provides flawless mutual understanding between people. It is the result of a generalization of the experience gained in the design of spacecraft “Buran”.

Graphic language DRAGON specifically designed to transform a complex algorithm into a simple picture (dragon figure), provides quick and easy understanding of the principle of “He looked – and knew right away!”


    1. Part 1 Dragon was born in the cradle of space
    2. Part 2. Language DRAGON opens the gate to the kingdom understandable algorithms
    3. Part 3: The path to wisdom. Language of the dragon and the fundamental problems of civilization

Part 1. Language “Dragon” was born in the cradle of the space, but soon grew from a “short space panties”

Slide 1. Graphic DRAGON language specifically designed to transform a complex algorithm into a simple picture (dragon figure), provides quick and easy understanding of the principle of “He looked – and knew right away!”

Pilyugin Nicholas and his brainchild.
The origins of “dragon”

Language DRAGON developed jointly by the Russian Space Agency (Scientific-Production Center of Automatics and Instrument Academician NA Pilyugin, Moscow) and the Russian Academy of Sciences (Institute of Applied Mathematics Academician Keldysh, Moscow).

Academician Nikolai Pilyugin (1908-1982) – the founder of the autonomous (fully automatic) control systems of rocket and space systems. Being one of the pioneers of astronautics, he created the first institution in the country in which the developed autonomous control systems for rockets, boosters and other space objects.

One anniversaries chief sounded line dedicated to him:

Rocket – she is blind goat!

So that was in it, and the meaning and luster,

Rocket need to have eyes

And most importantly – the brain!

And you are among the eternal worries and noise

As the first-born mother teaches,

Taught missiles look and think,

And that means – to fly!

The launch of the first satellite in 1957 shocked the world and found the Americans by surprise. Yuri Gagarin’s flight in 1961 was a triumph of Soviet science.They bring to life and come true fantastic projects of the national hero of the USSR – the legendary designer Sergei Korolev. Intellectual support for his daring project provides “nervous system” missile – board control system, created by Nicholas Pilyugin.

Keeping pace with the times, translated Pilyugin control system with analog technology to digital. This required the development of powerful on-board computer systems and sophisticated programming techniques.

It was soon discovered an unexpected obstacle – intervened in the human factor. What complicates the cosmic system, the stronger the need for perfect understanding between developers. Lack of understanding painful effect on the course of major missile projects. Particularly acute problem manifested itself in the mutual creation of space complex “Energia-Buran”.

Looking ahead, we say that the language of the dragon was created primarily as a tool that provides flawless mutual understanding between people. It is the result of summarizing the experience gained in the design of spacecraft “Buran”.

2. Slide the American Space Shuttle and the Soviet Buran – highly complex space projects. They stimulate creative research in many areas of science and high technologies, particularly in the area of ​​the creation of new programming languages. In our country, the end result of these efforts was the language of the dragon which soon grew from a “short space of panties.” Today DRAGON – a powerful tool to improve the mind, suitable for describing the structure of human activity and algorithms.

What is intelligent

Modern civilization is inconceivable without large-scale research and development. Projects are becoming more complex and grander. Examples of large projects are spacecraft and the Space Shuttle Buran, nuclear power plants and chemical plants. Increasingly complex scientific research in theoretical physics, biology, medicine, etc. In all such cases, the question arises: how to achieve mutual understanding between the subcontractors work?

The difficulty is that each researcher and developer, each participant of the common cause knows only its own, relatively small (in size), although very complex (the depth of ideas) work area. And quite a vague idea what is going on at the neighbors. Hence, mutual misunderstandings, inconsistencies and errors in the joints.

It is logical to ask: what is the cause of trouble? Is it too big resources (human, material, financial and time) have to spend to ensure effective interaction between professionals involved in working together? Why the large research and development is often delayed for months or even for years?

With these, or about such problems faced developers orbiter Buran. Experience Burana shows that the question of intellectual understanding professionals often play a key and fundamental role and largely determines the success of the case. When you create a complex set of airborne and ground-based programs have to untwist Burana dodgy tangle of impossibly intricate problems. Therefore, the battle comes an army of specialists from different professions from many different organizations. At the initial stage, these people are very poor understanding of each other. This is the case when the exorbitant complexity of the problem and the associated specialization leads to the ridiculous, but, alas, the real paradox when “Enema experts” do not understand “experts on the tip.”

Nevertheless, they create algorithms, is more like a primeval algorithmic chaos, torn apart by lightning glaring inconsistencies, must eventually become a single filigree pattern, managing Buran with fabulous accuracy and reliability.

Thus, the problem is as old as the world. To avoid the sad fate of the builders of the Tower of Babel, a complex project participants have to learn very well understand each other. Otherwise, numerous errors “at the joints” may prevent the success of the development.

Slide 3. Understanding should be seen as work. It is necessary to dramatically increase the productivity of labor (perhaps an order of magnitude).It solves this problem “Dragon”.

Where to begin the story of “Dragon”?

In 1982, Yuri Trunov, head of department of complex Pilyuginskogo center (today – General Designer) was made responsible for the development of a comprehensive management system Burana. Trunov clearly understood: without effective algorithmic high-level language development Burana impossible.

On his initiative – jointly with the Institute of Applied Mathematics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR – it was created three languages: PROL2 (for the development of on-board integrated programs Burana), dipole (ground-based programs to create Burana) and LAX (for modeling). The work led three groups of programmers led by Victor Kryukov Vladimir Lutsikovicha and Konstantin Fedorov. It was, so to speak, the prehistory of the Dragon.

Although the language is successfully solve tasks, it became clear that specialization prevents the cause of languages. In this regard, in 1986 Yuri Trunov summoned the head of the laboratory of the complex development of the computer system Burana Vladimir Parondzhanova and commissioned him to create a universal language, capable of replacing the above three.

Humanitarian language requirements

However Parondzhanov decided to put the problem differently. He believed that the new language must not only meet the practical needs of space technology, but also to solve an extremely wide range of tasks that go far beyond traditional programming.

Therefore, when creating a language DRAGON were nominated unusual for programmers, mathematicians, and “techies” humanitarian requirements.

1. To improve the working of the human mind.

2. To propose effective means to describe the structure of human activity.

3. Provide a person such language tools that dramatically simplifies schayut perception of complex procedural problems and communication with the count legami make incomprehensible comprehensible and thus literally make people think clearly, deeply and productively. In these circumstances, the likelihood of mistakes, miscalculations and mistakes inevitably falls, and productivity increases.

4. Radically facilitate intersectoral and interdisciplinary communication between representatives of different organizations, agencies, departments, laboratories, scientific schools and professions.

5. Eliminate or reduce the barriers of misunderstanding between workers of different specialties (physicians and physicists, mathematicians and designers, biologists and economists, and so on. D.), As well as programmers and those who are allergic to any programming.

6. To achieve a radical improvement of software quality by the criterion of “comprehensibility of algorithms and programs.”

Algorithms and Programs

Slide 4. Many programmers complain that their own program they barely understand half a year or even a month. And if we are talking about someone else’s program? Then it becomes very difficult. Often it is easier to write a program, rather than to understand what makes someone else.Therefore, among the requirements of the modern algorithmic languages, first place goes increasingly udoboponimaemost programs (comprehensibility). The latter is defined as a property of the program to minimize the intellectual effort required to understand it. Language DRAGON aims to provide the best possible comprehensibility of algorithms and programs. According to the developers, it can become a “champion” among the programming languages ​​on this criterion.

Scientific basis of language “Dragon”

DRAGON is a fundamentally new scientific foundation. It relies on “turned inside out” of classical theory Ashcroft-Manna. Vladimir Parondzhanov proved that the graphic language syntax DRAGON is a graphical logical calculus (“numbered icons”).

But not the main thing. Every language has a particular mathematical flavor. Mathematical rigor – is a mandatory requirement for the designers of the language. So the math now nobody will be surprised.

The principal feature of the dragon, which distinguishes it from all known languages, is that it has not only mathematics, but also a reliable cognitive ergonomic foundation. Parondzhanova merit is that he has shown for the first time:

• to create a good language a little mathematics;

• it is necessary to add to it the idea of ​​cognitive ergonomics;

• durable alloy of mathematics and ergonomics provides a qualitatively new level algorithmic language, which previously could not even dream of.

Based on these considerations, Parondzhanov proposed to base the language DRAGON cognitive-ergonomic methods of formalization of professional knowledge.


Slide 5. Understanding the algorithms and complex work processes can be greatly alleviated if used to describe the language of dragons.Ergonomics – the science of human factors. Cognitive Ergonomics helps to create a completely new visual presentation of professional knowledge to create the most intelligent comfort for the eyes and the brain.

Slide 6. Language DRAGON delivers exceptional clarity and unprecedented visibility algorithms. In these circumstances, the likelihood of hidden algorithmic errors and caused them trouble and accidents is reduced many times over. Figuratively speaking, holding error in the algorithm as it jumps out of an algorithmic drawing (dragon-circuit), the developer gets punched in the nose and a booming voice shouting: “Notice me!”.

Who developed
system software

Developing the ideas of Victor and Vladimir Kryukov Lutsikovicha (Institute of Applied Mathematics), employees Pilyuginskogo center started to develop compilers and other software programs DRAGON. The work was conducted in the department of Constantine Fedorov. The biggest contribution was made by the creative head of the laboratory system programming Baltrušaitis Vladislav and Sergey Kashin Alexander Semenov and others.

Development was in an atmosphere of sharp disagreements. Under one roof gathered outstanding creative personalities, and each had his own point of view on the future nature of language and the way of its development. The debate raged until midnight. Although it never came to blows, but the profanity shook the building to the ground. It is possible that it was the most scandalous development of algorithmic language in the history of such works.

Fortunately, violent verbal skirmishes and deafening scandals prevented the progress of work. Moreover, they are, paradoxically, contributed to the birth of new ideas and discoveries. However, it is not surprising – in disputes truth is born!

Slide 7. Language Dragon versatile and can be used in all areas of human activity, such as in medicine. The slide presented a medical algorithm “First aid for chemical burns to the eye fluid,” written in the language of dragons. This algorithm is interesting because it does not require translation. We have before us the instruction for a family doctor (GP), which should give first aid for chemical burns to the eyes. Talking about the translation in this case is meaningless. Until now, programmers and mathematicians ignored these instructions – it is, they say, not algorithms.From the perspective of the philosophy of language DRAGON, is not the case. Such instructions should be viewed as non-classical algorithms (which require ergonomic formalization). The principal novelty of the Dragon is that it provides a standard means of expression for the classical algorithms (when translation is required), and for non-classical (when the broadcast is not needed).

The split in the camp of developers

Meanwhile, tension grew. Ideological differences reached unprecedented sharpness and led to a split. A group of “dissidents” led by Gennady Gulenkov (Pilyuginsky center) and Leonid Eisymont (Institute of Applied Mathematics). Together with them, we worked Chief of the Vladimir Hill, Lyudmila Vlasova, Sergey Shcherbakov, Larissa Tyurin, Alexander Kopylov, Victor Mironov, Alexander Rusanov Sergei Shmakov and others.

What are the differences? Group Fedorov-Baltrushaitis defended a simplified version of the language DRAGON (which was called graphite).

“Dissident” group Gulenkova-Eisymont (supported by one of the leaders of the center Vladimir Morozov Pilyuginskogo) defended the full-sized project of the Dragon. This option, of course, was more promising.

The collapse of the Soviet Union undercut the dragon wings

Unfortunately, the “dissidents” suffered a disaster. That’s when collapsed one of the greatest powers in the world (USSR). The economy of the new Russia was in ruins. After the first flight of Buran brilliant events took an unexpected turn. On the eve of full readiness for the second top flight came to a tragic order “to cancel the flight!”. Due to lack of money all the work on the project “Energy-Buran” were first preserved, and then completely stopped. Forever. Forever.

Funding for space development in the new Russia has fallen to almost zero. Pilyuginskim close cooperation between the center and the Institute of Applied Mathematics, which was built for decades, was almost completely destroyed. It is worth remembering that the firm Pilyugina many years has been a reliable source of funding for the Institute of Applied Mathematics, receiving in exchange the priceless intellectual services and development.

But now it has come to an end. Money valve was closed. Pilyuginsky center became almost bankrupt. He could no longer feed the Institute of Mathematics. As a result, a group of programmers Leonid Eisymont (IPM) was left without a livelihood. And he was forced to stop work on the dragon, switching to paying customers.

Slide 8. Termination of work on the Buran hit hard
DRAGON by developers. The situation became critical.

The dragon has risen from the ashes,
like a phoenix

However, there is a blessing in disguise. During this period, the head of a complex division Pilyuginskogo center is Vladimir Morozov. He was appointed head of the department of programming energetic leader Hermann Kostochkina.Work on the creation of software Dragon became sharply grow. Left without help from the Institute of Applied Mathematics, Vladislav Baltrušaitis and his team decided to conquer the summit alone. It was incredibly difficult. But they have done the impossible.

By 1998, all the work on system programming has been completed. On the basis of the Dragon was built automated technology software design ( CASE -technology) under the working title “Graphite-Phlox.” DRAGON technology includes an extensive set of software tools: a procedural editor declarative editor, database compiler, the analyzer, code generator, etc.

Slide 9. Algorithm “First aid for chemical burns to the eye fluid” consists of three branches.Branch – most large algorithmic design language of dragons.It has no analogues in other languages.The branch provides a very convenient and intuitive structuring algorithm.(We continue to consider a medical algorithm to demonstrate the ability of Dragon to describe algorithms and procedural expertise in all areas of professional activity, not just in space).

Slide 10. Fragment of the first branch of medical algorithm
“First aid for chemical burns to the eyes”

Slide 11. Fragment of the second branch of medical algorithm
“First aid for chemical burns to the eyes”

Slide 12. Fragment of the third branch of medical algorithm
“First aid for chemical burns to the eyes”

Baptism of fire dragon

Development DRAGON lasted about fifteen years. Individual elements of the dragon-technology already used Buran. But it was mostly “paper” Dragon.Algorithms were compiled on paper in the form of a dragon-circuits and programming languages ​​was conducted in PROL2, dipoles and LAX.

The first automatic dragon technology has been tested in the software development of autonomous and integrated tests of the international space project “Sea Launch» (Sea Launch).

The project involved the United States, Norway, Russia and Ukraine. Missile launches were made from a floating launch platform, located on the equator in the western Pacific Ocean near the islands of Kiribati. Launch control was carried out with a nearby assembly and command ship. For each start the starting platform and the assembly and command ship is sea voyage from a base located on the US West Coast, to the islands of Kiribati, and then come back.

The results of the application of technology dragon appeared shiny. They exceeded all expectations.

After that, the dragon-technology was used in the Russian-French space project “Fregat”, as well as the modernization of the carrier rocket “Proton-M”. Since the results were consistently high, management Pilyuginskogo center decided to use Dragon technology in all future projects.

Slide 13. The graphic language alphabet dragon. It contains twenty-three grafoelementa (23 icons). However, this amount is sufficient to display a visual drawing procedural expertise and algorithms related to any area of ​​professional activity.

WHAT highlight of the dragon?

The disadvantage of the traditional approach is that the creators of languages ​​and computer systems often start to work at the wrong end and putting the cart before the horse. As pointed out by the psychologist Donald Norman, “they too often end up with the car, but the man only think in the end, when it’s too late.”

To avoid such mistakes in the development of language DRAGON was chosen a completely different approach. It was declared a strategic goal: to create the most comfortable conditions for work of the human intellect, to provide the best The possibility to increase the efficiency of collective intelligence specialists sheets.

In accordance with this program setting has been set the task to create a public, very easy to learn and easy to use language that allows to solve algorithmic problems at the cost of minimal intellectual effort. The language that is because of their primordial orientation of a person could become a truly “national “t. e.,” mother “for specialists virtually any profile (not just programmers).

With this DRAGON able to play the role of “Esperanto for the business world.” Mutual understanding of professionals can significantly improve if the representatives of different professions will display their procedural knowledge in the language of dragons.

programming without programmers

DRAGON – a very easy language.So easy that many developing computer programs for space rockets in practice are not programmers, and those of ordinary skill (kompleksniki). They operate on the principle of “programming without programmers.”

The reason for not programmers simple.When solving practical applications specialists possess material thoroughly and knows posing s Tasks. In contrast, the programmers do not know, “the physics of the process” and become “superfluous men”, without which it is possible to do.

This can significantly reduce costs, improve the performance of “cost-benefit” to accelerate the work. And to get rid of errors “broken telephone” caused by mutual misunderstandings between programmers and specialists.

Slide 14. The figure of a man, we perceive the simultaneous, ie simultaneously, completely and quickly. Our brain has neural mechanisms for this perception. The same mechanisms are used in the perception of the dragon-circuits.

Slide 15. Dragon scheme is somewhat similar to the human figure. She is also the top – hat, and the bottom – “shoes.” The only difference is that the “shoes” have another name – “address”

Slide 16. Cap dragon scheme – an extremely effective tool providing structuring dragon scheme and partitioning algorithm into semantic parts -branches . Ergonomic trick is that the cap , divining the secret desire of the reader, giving him a strong clue – the answer to all the “royal” questions. Here are the answers to a medical algorithm.

• What is the problem? (Read the title of the algorithm). First aid for chemical burns to the eye fluid.

• How many parts is it? (We consider the icon “branch name”). Of the three.

• What is the name each part? (read the text in the icons “branch name”). 1. Rinsing with water. 2. eyewash converter. 3. Drug treatment.

Additional ergonomic convenience due to the fact that the cap takes “ceremonial” a place at the top of the drawing, and the names of semantic units are placed inside special frames unique form that is easy to find the eye. With this cap immediately attracts the attention of the reader without any effort on his part. This is very important because the reader does not have to prowl around in the dark corners of the algorithm, trying to extract the desired information.

As a result, Dragon provides the reader with an ergonomically efficient three-step method of learning an unknown or forgotten problem. In the first phase, analyzing the cap, the reader learns assignment algorithm and its division into semantic parts (branches). On the second – provides in-depth analysis of each branch. The third parses interaction branches.

Dragon has completely changed the interaction
-kompleksnikov Developers
and programmers

Previously, the work was organized so. Kompleksnik betrayed the programming department paper document – the initial data for the development of programs and harmonize it with the programmer. Then the programmer on the basis of this document developed the program.

On the integrated stand it is usually turned out that the program works properly. Who made ​​a mistake: kompleksnik or programmer? To find out, refer to the document – the initial data for the development of the program. And then there is dumb. It turns out that the document about it does not say anything. Or is written so clumsily and ambiguity that can be understood both ways.

Thus, the document does not fulfill its main function and can not answer the question: who is to blame for the mistake. Such a system works, vicious in its basis, leads to irresponsibility, a huge flow of errors and poor quality work.

DRAGON decisively removes this disgrace. When you go to a dragon-kompleksnik technology at its disposal a computer tool – the dragon graphics editor.With it, he projects (paints) on the computer screen dragon diagram. The latter is automatically converted in the mathematically exact algorithm.

In this case, a paper document (input data of the program development) is not used. Kompleksnik transmits programming department is not “dirty, confusing piece of paper”, and a floppy disk with an algorithm that he (kompleksnik) has developed itself, with their hands – without the help of programmers.

Having the floppy disk, the programming department produces automatic translation of code and eventually gets an object module program. Last loaded into the on-board computer or ground missile system.

Thanks DRAGON kompleksnik got precious opportunity cost minimal effort on their own to develop and analyze in detail the algorithm, that is to carry out the formalization of their professional knowledge.

Thus, when using Dragon realized wise principle: who has the knowledge, and that they should be formalized. Knowledge of physics and functioning of the missile system has a specialist kompleksnik, and not the programmer. Therefore kompleksnik and their knowledge must be formalized. In this case, an endless game of “broken telephone” between the programmer and kompleksnikom completely eliminated.

The results of the introduction of technology impact the dragon immediately. Earlier kompleksnik understand the algorithmic part of their work with respect to shallow or superficial. Now – thanks to the work of the computer with the dragon-editor and an instant printout of the results for a full review – he began to understand it in detail. Because the dragon diagram showing him his own ideas – developed algorithm – in a clear, understandable and intelligible form.

As a result, the depth of the intellectual study of the algorithm significantly increased. The quality of work has improved considerably. Labor productivity increased.

From the “Pascal” to the “Dragon”

At the time, Niklaus Wirth, author Pascal, said Pascal should be the first language with which to begin the study program. This view has become generally accepted.

At that time, the program written in the form of text. For text Pascal programming, indeed, was the best language learning.

However, today the situation has changed.The future belongs to the visual and graphic language. In these conditions, “the grandfather Pascal” has lost its former glory, “a wonderful educational tool.”

Today, this role goes to the graphic language of dragons. DRAGON It becomes the easiest and logically consistent language, which must begin with the study of algorithms and programming.

Slide 17. DRAGON is recommended as the first language, with which we must begin the study of algorithms and programs in the educational system

Language “dragon” and the system

It has been said that the practical utility of the Dragon has been praised. The Ministry of Education has included the study of language DRAGON program of high school course of computer science (see .: “about the program of discipline” Computer science “. Official publication. – M .: State Committee, 1996″.

Preparations textbooks for middle and high school. Already published the first of them – playing textbook for junior and middle school age: see. VDParondzhanov. Interesting computer: Magic Dragon visiting Murzik. – M .: Rosman, 1998, 2000. 160s. 200 illustrations. ”

Slide 18. In the language of DRAGON are two very comfortable, but the unusual concept. Skewer – a vertical line connecting the start and end of the algorithm (or branches). The main route - the path from the beginning to the end of the algorithm, leads to the greatest success.

The rule is: the main route of the algorithm has to go on a skewer. This means that the “royal” path may not be somewhere in the back of a dragon-circuit, where his afternoon with fire not find. No, it should always be on the “most honorable” place – at the leftmost vertical. Compliance with this rule makes the circuit visually orderly, predictable and intuitively clear.

Slide 19. From a logical point of view of both algorithms are equivalent. However, from an ergonomic point of view of the left scheme better as the main route has no kinks.

Slide 20. Dragon diagram ordered from left to right
according to the principle: “The right of the worse.”

Slide 21. Graphic mathematical formula, justifying the operation “Castling”. It serves as a mathematical justification for the above two rules:

• The main route to go on a skewer (see para. 19 of the slide to the left).

• Side routes are to the right of the main draw on the principle: “The right of the worse” (see. Slide 20).

Part 2

Language “Dragon”
open the gate into the kingdom
understandable Algorithms

criterion ultrahigh understanding

The main requirement is to improve the language DRAGON understanding between people, facilitating complex mental work, improving understandability algorithms. To indicate this requirement, introduced the concept of “ultra-high criterion of understanding.”

It is believed that the language satisfies this criterion if the plans written on it, algorithms and processes have the highest cognitive ergonomics.

ergonomic algorithms

You could say differently. Criterion ultrahigh understanding require that a recording of algorithms was convenient and allowed the man to read any algorithm with “extraordinary intellectual ease.”

To create such a facility, we need new, frankly, unusual for a mathematician, but understandable “for the people” rule recording algorithms.

Ergonomic algorithm - an algorithm that meets the criteria of ultrahigh understanding. The advantage of ergonomic algorithms that are much clearer, clearer, more clearly and effectively than usual. If the algorithm is not understood, it is difficult or even impossible to detect with bated error. Conversely, the clearer algorithm, the easier it is to find a defect. Therefore, a more intuitive, ergonomic algorithm is much better than usual. Better in the sense that it facilitates the identification of errors, and this is very important. The more bugs will be able to find a visual inspection, the greater the likelihood that the newly created algorithm is correct, error-free and reliable. In addition, the ergonomically convenient for the study of algorithms, it is easier to explain to another person.

Slide 22. Methods of cognitive ergonomics can provide
great help in the design of programming languages

Epoch understandable algorithms

The practice of designing and operating DRAGON language suggests that the ad above strategic goal – building algorithms suitable for solving the problem of understanding and mutual understanding – is achievable. If this is true, then we are on the threshold of a new era – the era of understandable algorithms.

For the first time worldwide complex algorithms become easier to understand! This means that the dream will be realized most visionary mathematicians and programmers. Instead, today’s “inconceivable” algorithmic jungle everywhere shine light magic “amazing visual description of algorithms and processes.”Before our admiring eyes opened a new world – friendly algorithms, which will reign extraordinary lightness and depth of understanding.

It is hoped that the further development of the theory and practice ergonomizatsii algorithms will have important consequences. There is reason to believe that the mass use of language DRAGON pave the way for a general algorithmic literacy (to the extent that such a task is, in principle, can be addressed) .

Slide 23. The two equivalent logical formulas. On the left – the traditional text formula (Scheme “OR”), clear a narrow circle of mathematicians and programmers.

Right – the “democratic” graphic formula (flowchart “OR”), written in the language of dragons. It is clear to a much wider range of employees. Practice shows that the right formula is available even to those who are experiencing huge difficulties at work with a complex formula left.

It should be emphasized: DRAGON does not prohibit work on the left by the formula. But for those for whom it is difficult, it offers a more humane and easy option.

Slide 24. The two are equivalent to logical formulas. Left – the traditional formula (circuit “AND”), is not all clear.

The formula on the right (flowchart “and”), written in DRAGON, much easier to understand. It becomes even clearer if we substitute the abstract letters A, B, C, F to specific manufacturing concepts. For Example:

A = rate of fuel feed rate = power supply;

V F = rate of ignition to start the engine.

Part 3

Path to Wisdom

Language of the dragon and the fundamental
problems of civilization

what awaits us in the future?

Over the past hundred years, the situation on the planet has changed dramatically. Things are worse than expected. Global problems are exacerbated. Attempts to overcome them do not lead to a noticeable success. All clearly proves the inability of the human mind to find solutions to many pressing problems of our time.

The latter include well-known ills of terrestrial civilization: the continuous military conflicts, massive military spending, the spread of nuclear weapons, international terrorism, crime, overpopulation, poverty, social upheavals, religious extremism. Add to this the environmental sores: environmental pollution, the thinning of the ozone layer, the exhaustion of resources, dangerous processes in the biosphere, the growth of greenhouse gas emissions, global warming and possible sea level rise. And do not forget about the asteroid threat, ie the possibility of collision of the Earth with cosmic body crazy.

To solve these problems required unprecedented measures. For the first time in the history of intelligence is becoming the main tool for conscious efforts to save the world. Without the active intervention of the mind unravel this tangle of problems in a reasonable time is unlikely. At the same time we have to admit that the current intelligence of humanity is too weak and clearly inadequate to address such challenges.

The weakness of the intelligence leads to what is often the situation gets out of control, causing severe negative consequences of local or global. Like a sinister lights, illuminating the globe erupt everywhere, large and small disasters, wars and other disasters that the mind can not foresee and prevent. Thus, price errors, omissions and weaknesses of intelligence has become unacceptably high. Hence derive conclusions:

• We need to improve intelligence, ie improve intellectual activity in science, technology, business, education, politics, the economy and other important areas.

• We need to create new, more efficient intellectual tools and instruments that can make collective intelligence of mankind more powerful and effective.

Analyzing the history of civilization, we can distinguish long process of intellectual development of mankind. People have long sought to improve their intellectual tools to expand the limits of the power of thought.

Until recently, this process was natural, slow and not very effective. But today the situation has changed. Now you can get this important process control, to explore its features, understand the patterns and learn to control it. The purpose of management – to increase the intellectual productivity of mankind.

It will be shown that the language of dragons who from the beginning was conceived as a means to improve the functioning of the mind, an example of conscious and efficient approach to solving the problem – the problem of improving the creative productivity of the human brain.

Sergey Ulyanov

What is more important:
a computer or a human brain?

In the development of computer hardware and software can be divided into two epochs. The first – the era of brute computerization, during which was carried out automation of mental labor. It was a great achievement. In a few years, computer shell formed a planet that has taken on his mighty shoulders of countless tasks that previously could only be carried out human brain.

However, rest on our laurels early. It became clear that this is totally inadequate. Why is that?

The answer is obvious.Hundreds of millions of computers like magic flowers dotted the globe and become an integral part of the intellectual landscape.However, a major player in the intellectual field is still the human brain. Computer – just a tool. Decides not to computers and people.

the most important characteristic of civilization?

Our planet – a gigantic warehouse, or rather the generator of unsolved problems: small, medium, large and global. The faster they will be addressed, the more successful will the development of society, the more favorable prospects for humanity.

This means that the speed of the brain becomes an essential characteristic of civilization. It is desirable that the brain worked with the greatest productivity, solving the problem at the fastest pace.

On the threshold of a new intellectual

To pinpoint the problem, ask the question. How does the brain of people after automation, ie after the transfer of a number of computers on intellectual tasks?Were you able to create the best conditions for the work of the mind? If not, how to ensure that the efficiency of the brain was the maximum ?

When rough computerization these questions not only not solved, but did not put. Meanwhile, in the world today is dominated by rough computerization. This leads to unpleasant consequences. Scientists, engineers, programmers, defining the strategy of informatization of the planet, while in captivity outdated views overlook something very important – the idea that the future belongs to (an elephant-something I did not notice!). By focusing on the development of computers, software, networks and primitive concept of the user interface, they are completely overlooked the problem of facilitating the work of the brain and make it more creative productivity.

As a result, the possibility of brain underutilized. Huge reserves of human intelligence at all levels of management and decision-making remain unclaimed.And just when the need for wiser, intellectually sound and informed decisions reached unprecedented, we can say, global severity.

What follows from this? Today we stand on the threshold of a new computer era – an era of thin computing. Its purpose – to improve the working of the mind, ie, to ensure maximum performance (brain) knowledge workers and students.

This is a new computer revolution, which should solve much more complex, truly a daunting task – to invade the secrets of the brain and make it work better, faster, more efficiently.

Language DRAGON – the first science-based step in this direction. You could say differently. DRAGON – it is the first sign that shows the right – cognitive ergonomic – a way to increase the productivity of the creative brain. (For more detailed arguments on this subject can be found in the monograph “VD Parondzhanov. How to improve the work of the mind: Algorithms without programming – it’s easy! M .: Delo, 2001. 360s.”).

The intellectual history of mankind
and superyazyki

Intellectual history of humanity is inextricably linked with the improvement of the language. In the history of the language can be divided into four partially overlapping phases:

• Sound (oral) language preliterate era;

• written language (cuneiform, hieroglyphics, alphabetic writing);

• artificial languages ​​(drawings, diagrams, chemical and mathematical formulas, logical-mathematical calculus, programming languages);

• ergonomic superyazyki.

The advent of sound language preliterate era has provided man from the animal world, denoting a huge leap in the development of animal intelligence. At the same mind “preliterate” person is at an extremely low level of development. It was a savage intellect rather than the person.

The invention of written language symbolized the second giant leap in the evolution of intelligence. This event can be described as the transformation of the savage into a man. Writing gave people the power over information. The birth of the letter – this is the beginning of recorded history, the conception of civilization.

The third strong leap in the development of intelligence associated with intensive development of artificial languages, among which a special place is occupied by the logical-mathematical calculus and thousands of programming languages.

Let us recall the words of Nikolai Lobachevsky:

“What lent his brilliant successes of science – the glory of modern times, the triumph of the human mind? Without a doubt, his artificial language! “.

We come to the most interesting places. Nowadays gain intellectual power of mankind is largely carried out through the creation and use of a variety of artificial languages. However, along the way there is an unexpected difficulty. It is ergonomically imperfection existing languages. They’re too tight. It’s hard for the human perception. The current languages ​​are available only to a select few and not suitable for mass use. This severely hinders the further growth of the intellectual capacity of people.

The fundamental lack of language

Consider one of the major intellectual challenges – programming problem. Let us remember the words of academician Andrei Ershov:

“Man is immeasurably strengthen their intelligence, if a part of his nature will make the ability to plan their actions … in a word, made by the programmer.”

Whether rights respected academician? There is no doubt: the ability to program a good mental capabilities greatly expands the experts, allowing to optimize the work of the mind and use your computer for more efficient order. However, there is one “but”. In practice, the proposed Ershov way to improve intelligence – alas! – Does not work. He simply closed for the majority of visitors. Why is that?

The trouble is that all of the well-known programming languages ​​are too complex and inaccessible “for the people.” They are designed for a narrow caste of experts and more to anyone. Intellectual effort to develop the software unacceptably high.

Therefore programming languages ​​are not able to provide the necessary salutary effect on the intellectual life of society. They can not overcome the fragmentation of individual intelligence and ensure the necessary strengthening of the power of the collective mind of the world, corresponding to modern requirements.

Along with the class of programming languages ​​and other artificial languages ​​(which, of course, should continue to function in the culture) is necessary to create a fundamentally new class of languages ​​to indicate which proposed the term “superyazyki intellectual communication” (for short – superyazyki).

Dragon – the first in the history of superyazyk

One of the most dramatic contradictions of the current phase of the development of civilization is as follows. On the one hand, the weakness of the planetary mind threatens the fate of civilization, and science has no answer to the question: how to get the necessary intelligence to gain salvation?

On the other hand, the enormous reserves intelligent human brain is still not used. Because people are “exploited” his brain badly, wrong, not at all, as required by its “design” (ergonomic and neurobiological) characteristics.

So, why do we need superyazyki? To resolve this contradiction, to overcome the current impasse by the intelligent detection and evidence-based use of hidden reserves of the brain.

Social success of any artificial language, its rootedness in the culture, the possibility of large-scale expansion of its scope and international recognition depends on accessibility and usefulness of the language. superyazykov usefulness is determined by what they have to facilitate the understanding and understanding, provide a strategic intellectual breakthrough that allows qualitatively enhance mental the power of civilization.

Language DRAGON can be described as the first ever ergonomic superyazyk, since it is designed to help research-based methods of ergonomic design.

You could say differently. DRAGON – this is the first consciously made an ergonomic step in language development. Ergonomic – means, firstly, aimed at improving the work of the mind, and secondly, based on the power of the science of human factors – ergonomics and cognitive science. The above can be summarized in the form of a brief thesis: DRAGON – this ergonomic revolution “yazykostroenii.”

The existence and successful operation of a dragon in a number of major missile and space projects shows that the practical implementation superyazykov is possible. It’s not fancy, no utopia, no pink dream – this is reality. It is hoped that superyazyki as a new generation of artificial languages, will optimize the work of the mind, and to significantly increase the intellectual potential of society.

Looking to the future, we can probably assume that with the advent of superyazykov against humanity opens a new way of knowledge – the path leading to true wisdom.

Slide 25. According to ancient Tibetan beliefs, the dragon – a symbol of wisdom. Dragon Tree – the tree of wisdom. Way of the Dragon – the path to wisdom. Respecting the ancient wisdom, the language designers have chosen for him the name of “dragon”.


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