Ok, so retrosplenial seems to offload work from the hippocampus in familiar environments. It lights up most heavily when it’s furthest away from the goal in a familiar environment. [i know this place! – recognition] It also explains when lesions there lead to an inability to perform routines in familiar environments because they lost their maps / programming / navigation habits for those environments. “Our observation that retrosplenial cortex only comes to code the distance to the goal after extended experience with the environment is consistent with several past studies which have observed increased activity in the retrosplenial cortex with the acquisition of spatial knowledge about an environment (Wolbers and Büchel 2005; Auger et al. 2012, 2015). It is also consistent with reports of disorientation in highly familiar environments after retrosplenial lesions (Aguirre and D’Esposito 1999; Maguire et al. 2001; Spiers and Maguire 2007b). It remains to be seen whether this shift is accompanied by a transformation from detailed representations to a more gist-like schema, as has been proposed for the involvement of the retrosplenial cortex in models of contextual memory (Ranganath and Ritchey 2012) and by TTT (Winocur et al. 2010; Winocur and Moscovitch 2011; Sekeres et al. 2018), or alternatively if increased retrosplenial activity in familiar environments is a consequence of shifting between egocentric and allocentric representations during navigation (Marchette et al. 2014) (the latter of which would be potentially less available in recent environments).” https://academic.oup.com/cercor/article/29/6/2748/5420731

Ok, so retrosplenial seems
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It’s common in every election for the losing side to cry foul and claim there was fraud. Investigations happen. They find a couple of bad votes. The losing side remains unhappy. But for the losing President to do this is astounding. But Trump is known for perpetuating bad rumors and holding onto them for years. Example: “Obama was not America but born in another country.”. That wasn’t his first time either. He’s done that in other things too. It’s just.. never has he gotten so many to believe him.

It’s common in every
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RETROSPLENIAL CORTEX (RSC) : encodes FIRST PERSON PERSPECTIVE in SPECIFIC PLACES.* “RSC anchors internal spatial representations to local topographical features, thus allowing us to stay oriented while we navigate and to retrieve from memory the experience of being in a particular place.” *AS OPPOSED TO ‘GENETIC CATEGORY’ SUCH AS KITCHEN-LIKE SPACES, MUSEUM-LIKE SPACES, ETC, which are handled by … that part that does exemplars rather than specifics…. sorry for all caps but i’m happy to finally find it

RETROSPLENIAL CORTEX (RSC) : … [read full article]

 

“If the PPA represents landmark information, then it must be able to discriminate between 2 places of the same category, but in different locations. Instead, if the PPA represents general category information (as hypothesized here), then it will not represent the location of a particular place, but only the category of the place. As predicted, we found that the PPA represents 2 buildings from the same category, but in different locations, as more similar than 2 buildings from different categories, but in the same location. In contrast, another scene-selective region of cortex, the retrosplenial complex (RSC), showed the exact opposite pattern of results. Such a double dissociation suggests distinct neural systems involved in categorizing and navigating our environment, including the PPA and RSC, respectively.” https://www.pnas.org/content/116/42/21312

“If the PPA represents
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