So in short, they made a tiny switch that works via entanglement. Think of it this way: What position is an on/off switch always in? Any. Here, the switch (“any”) position is realized in entangled form. This will be fantastic for nano scope engineering projects. “Quantum mechanics allows events to happen with no definite causal order: this can be verified by measuring a causal witness, in the same way that an entanglement witness verifies entanglement. Here we realise a photonic quantum switch, where two operations, ^A and ^B, act in a quantum superposition of their two possible orders. The operations are on the transverse spatial mode of the photons; polarisation coherently controls their order. Our implementation ensures that the operations cannot be distinguished by spatial or temporal position—further it allows qudit encoding in the target. We confirm our quantum switch has no definite causal order by constructing a causal witness and measuring its value to be 18 standard deviations beyond the definite-order bound.”

So in short, they [read full article]


The world is full of ambitious people who have the drive but not the resources. I know I could’ve had a PhD or two under my belt but couldn’t even afford to get an Associate’s degree. (2 complete years). In the USA, you have a SMALL window of help: Age 18-23, approximately. After that, help dries up and life moves on. Gotta work. Had your chance, etc. I don’t regret it because the US is a class based system, mostly hinging on family community status and provable family income. Even with assistance, if your family couldn’t have afforded tuition, it also means you won’t be able to afford to avail yourself of opportunities that come only to those with sufficient connection and family (not personal) income. I didn’t have that and it’s ok. I like my life and glad for the choices I made out of what was available and my capabilities and drive. But I feel for those who DO want more, strive for it, have the intelligence but get little of the assistance (for lack of family community status and family income). If you pry behind the stories of the “self made successes”, you’ll usually find big helpers along the way that “lift” them up and continue to, often political in some way.

The world is full [read full article]