Time. That is the difference. “substances (with innate properties)” _is_ nonsense. The notion of static, timeless, unchanging entities is but a convenience – a language artifact allowing concepts of complex realities to be transported from thought to paper to model to computation to engineering… and it is at the point of engineering that the realities of “substances with innate properties” are revealed to have been complex processes all along. So, yes.

That is the
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So in short, they made a tiny switch that works via entanglement. Think of it this way: What position is an on/off switch always in? Any. Here, the switch (“any”) position is realized in entangled form. This will be fantastic for nano scope engineering projects. “Quantum mechanics allows events to happen with no definite causal order: this can be verified by measuring a causal witness, in the same way that an entanglement witness verifies entanglement. Here we realise a photonic quantum switch, where two operations, ^A and ^B, act in a quantum superposition of their two possible orders. The operations are on the transverse spatial mode of the photons; polarisation coherently controls their order. Our implementation ensures that the operations cannot be distinguished by spatial or temporal position—further it allows qudit encoding in the target. We confirm our quantum switch has no definite causal order by constructing a causal witness and measuring its value to be 18 standard deviations beyond the definite-order bound.”

So in short, they [read full article]