I agree with much of what you say as what you say matches many familiar principles of my own. However, the “people context” does have a privileged place over other contexts to me in that it SHOULD theoretically be possible for all people to communicate with all people with clarity in all the complexity of human life and needs. We’re all the same species. Our languages can generally translate to each other SOMEHOW and we have multiple ways; hand gestures, empathy, body language, etc that go beyond spoken words and can assist mutual human communication as well. This is something humans can do with each other that can’t be done across species; not in the same way; But then we can get into trouble when we humans use the same phrases as each other in the same languages but mean different things. Words can also trigger emotional reactions; people don’t like adjectives applied to them that they don’t agree with for example – and that can hamper clear communication, lead to misunderstandings, etc.

 I agree with much
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Combining 2 tab titles lists from August 15, 2021 and Oct 2, 2022 (1.25 years apart), ran them through an AI classifier that figures out where things fit in a Dewey Decimal System set up, and it strangely came up with exactly 50/50 Psychology and Epistemology/Causation. Now separately, each list came up with various percentages of each, but this is exactly in 1/2 when together. So, now to dig a little; LibraryThing shows “far friends” between DDC classifications; Poking around, hopefully I’ll find something in the 120s that matches as I already know a lot of matches are in the 150s. (2) adhd timing (4) Eudaimonic (PDF) Research report Playing piano in the mind—an fMRI study on music imagery and performance in pianists [PDF] Self-incompatibility: a self-recognition system in plants. [PDF] The Neural Correlates of Time: A Meta-analysis of Neuroimaging Studies “Brain Is to Thought as Stomach Is to ??”: Investigating the Role of Rostrolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Relational Reasoning | Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 1/B-aperiodic quantum oscillations 3. Make inferences about causes (Why did — feel sad?) It’s one question I simply can’t answer the way they want because anything’s possible. 3.4: Particle Model of Thermal Energy – Physics LibreTexts A concept is a theory constructed of properties about an object which forms its identity when an abstract object which we can refer to as its “encoding” A Conserved Switch in Sensory Processing Prepares Developing Neocortex for Vision A core network for recall and imagination A Corticothalamic Circuit Trades off Speed for Safety during Decision-Making under Motivational Conflict A dissociation between stopping and switching actions following a lesion of the pre-supplementary motor area A lack of default network suppression is linked to increased distractibility in ADHD A lack of default network suppression is linked to increased distractibility in ADHD Aaron Berkowitz, The Improvising Mind: Cognition and Creativity in the Musical Moment Abstract object theory Abstract particulars Accumulation of neural activity in the posterior insula encodes the passage of time Active parts of the brain – The science behind video games Adult outcome of preterm birth: Implications for neurodevelopmental theories of psychosis Affective consciousness in animals: perspectives on dimensional and primary process emotion approaches ag.algebraic geometry – Grothendieck’s relative point of view and Yoneda lemma – MathOverflow agnosticism and panentheism Alfred Tarski all modes of sensory-memory Allocortex Altered orbitofrontal activation in preterm-born young adolescents during performance of a reality filtering task alternative to foundationalism Although transcendence is defined as the opposite of immanence, the two are not necessarily mutually exclusive. Ambainis: Parsimony hierarchies for inductive inference Andy’s Brain Blog Animacy and threat in recognition memory animacy psychology Annual Research Review: Infant development, autism, and ADHD – early pathways to emerging disorders anterior hippocampus gist Anterior hippocampus: the anatomy of perception, imagination and episodic memory antior itg anxious and inattentive. anxious misery Aperiodic quantum oscillations in the two-dimensional electron gas at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface aristotle vs chinese philosophy Association of impaired neuronal migration with cognitive deficits in extremely preterm infants At the heart of the ventral attention system: The right anterior insula Atkinson–Shiffrin memory model Attention Network Hypoconnectivity With Default and Affective Network Hyperconnectivity in Adults Diagnosed With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Childhood | Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders | JAMA Psychiatry | JAMA Network Auditory Figure-Ground Segregation Is Impaired by High Visual Load autism, adhd, anxiety, very preterm, hippocampus, inference Automating Leibniz’s Theory of Concepts band of baillarger neonatal development preterm 28 weeks Basal ganglia Bashwiner: Musical creativity and the motor system Boundaries of the mind Brain activation deficit in increased-load working memory tasks among adults with ADHD using fMRI Brain Bases for Auditory Stimulus-Driven Figure–Ground Segregation brain chemicals involved in adhd autism anxiety Brain Correlates of Socio-Emotional and Mental Health Problems Brain injury in premature infants: a complex amalgam of destructive and developmental disturbances Brain Networks for Integrative Rhythm Formation | PLOS ONE Bystander effect (radiobiology) CA3 subregion can you build an ontology out of properties? Causal inference central idea deficiency Cerebellum of the Premature Infant: Rapidly Developing, Vulnerable, Clinically Important Cerebral Cortex Location & Functions | Simply Psychology chemotaxis and thermotaxis Children do not exhibit ambiguity aversion despite intact familiarity bias Chunking (psychology) Classic Hallucinogens and Mystical Experiences: Phenomenology and Neural Correlates Cognition in some surprising places cognitive difficulty word problems Collective_mental_state – Instances_of_collective_mental_states Comparative Aspects of Hearing in Vertebrates and Insects with Antennal Ears Comparative Connectomics concept of class (philosophy) Conceptual schema Cornell University researchers break their record with stunning high-res photo of atoms: Digital Photography Review Corpus callosum and cerebellar vermis size in very preterm infants: Relationship to long-term neurodevelopmental outcome – Pediatrics & Neonatology Correlation between the sequential ingrowth of afferents and transient patterns of cortical lamination in preterm infants Cortical control of motor sequences | 10.1016/j.conb.2006.03.008 Cortical Regions Involved in the Generation of Musical Structures during Improvisation in Pianists | Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience Cortical Reorganization in Children with Unilateral Sensorineural Hearing Loss Cortico-cortical communication dynamics Critical anthropomorphism Cultural schema theory Cytoarchitecture, probability maps, and functions of the human supplementary and pre-supplementary motor areas Dating the development of human cerebellum Debunking a myth: plant consciousness delay: OneLook Thesaurus denate gyrus hippocampus Details, gist and schema: hippocampal–neocortical interactions underlying recent and remote episodic and spatial memory Development of Structural and Functional Connectivity difficulty connecting symbols to objects Disappearance of the lamina dissecans Discourse Comprehension – Situation Model Construction dlpfc dlpfc basal ganglia doorway effect hippocampus Drinker World e left ventral posterior hippocampus Early and long-term outcome of infants born extremely preterm Early human brain development: Starring the subplate Edmund Husserl Edmund Husserl, Alexius Meinong, Christian von Ehrenfels, Kasimir Twardowski, Carl Stumpf, and Anton Marty Effective Word-Problem Instruction: Using Schemas to Facilitate Mathematical Reasoning Effects of Preterm Birth on Cortical Thickness Measured in Adolescence | Cerebral Cortex | Oxford Academic Emanationism Embryonic Induction Enlarged Right Superior Temporal Gyrus in Children and Adolescents with Autism ENTORHINAL CORTEX OLFACTORY Entrainment and maintenance of an internal metronome in supplementary motor area | eLife Epistemological essentialism equivalent concepts in western and eastern philosophy essential inference Ethnographies of Waiting; Doubt, Hope and Uncertainty event onset evolutionary landscape external tufted cells Familiarity or recollection? Fetal functional imaging portrays heterogeneous development of emerging human brain networks figure-ground sensory perception auditory fMRI of Intrasubject Variability in ADHD: Anomalous Premotor Activity With Prefrontal Compensation focusing on those who cannot focus.pdf for me computers are great because i can switch from one thing to another to another to another Foundherentism Fractionating the anterior temporal lobe: MVPA reveals differential responses to input and conceptual modality Framing (social sciences) Frans B. M. de Waal Franz Brentano: He introduced the notion of intentionality to contemporary philosophy and psychology. Friston Anatomy of time.pdf frontal cortex vs prefrontal cortex Frontiers | “When Music Speaks”: Auditory Cortex Morphology as a Neuroanatomical Marker of Language Aptitude and Musicality Frontiers | Neural correlates of intentional switching from ternary to binary meter in a musical hemiola pattern Frontiers | The Biology and Evolution of the Three Psychological Tendencies to Anthropomorphize Biology and Evolution Frontiers | The Role of the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex for Speech and Language Processing Frontiers | Time Processing, Interoception, and Insula Activation: A Mini-Review on Clinical Disorders Frontiers | Time-Perception Network and Default Mode Network Are Associated with Temporal Prediction in a Periodic Motion Task Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evidence for Abnormalities in Response Selection in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Differences in Activation Associated with Response Inhibition but Not Habitual Motor Response Functional Preference for Object Sounds and Voices in the Brain of Early Blind and Sighted Individuals Fundamentals of the Development of Connectivity in the Human Fetal Brain in Late Gestation: From 24 Weeks Gestational Age to Term gamma burst sma supplementary motor area Genetics of structural and functional brain changes in autism spectrum disorder Gist perception in adolescents with and without ASD: Ultra-rapid categorization of meaningful real-life scenes Glomerulus_(olfaction) Goals and Habits in the Brain gravitate towards leadership positions as a child Hermogenes of Tarsus hershel’s gyrus brodmann 41 high resolution photograph of atom hippocampal theta vs cortical theta hippocampus activation in autism hippocampus and mPFC coherence autism hippocampus development prenatal Hippocampus proper Histogenesis of cortical layers in human cerebellum, particularly the lamina dissecans. How Beat Perception Co-opts Motor Neurophysiology: Trends in Cognitive Sciences How do Microbes Make Decisions How INTPs Mistype Themselves (and Why It Happens) How is taking a picture of an atom possible, and what is in the picture? – Quora How the deaf-blind categorize objects Human Hippocampal CA1 Involvement during Allocentric Encoding of Spatial Information Human Hippocampal Neurons Track Moments in a Sequence of Events | Journal of Neuroscience Human Periallocortex: Layer Pattern in Presubiculum, Parasubiculum and Entorhinal Cortex. A Review human subplate development hydrogen atom with its orbital. picture Hyperfocus: the forgotten frontier of attention I have trouble focusing on reading. i smell the environment for clues Impact of prematurity on neurodevelopment improvsational pianist right dlpfc inability to see oneself due to overactive imagination increased theta power adhd inference in the brain Inference machine broken. inferior colliculus functional map Inferior Parietal Cortex – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics Inner critic Insight reconfigures hippocampal-prefrontal memories insula musician Intentionality intermolecular self-assembly Interoception in anxiety and depression Interoceptive inference: homeostasis and decision-making intitle: ” delay” – Search results Introspection, intuition, noetic, emanation Investigating_the_causes_of_reading_comprehension Is it Time to Drop ‘Finding the Main Idea’ and Teach Reading in a New Way? Isoda: Participation of the primate presupplementary… Isoda: Switching from automatic to controlled action… Jakab: Fetal functional imaging portrays heterogeneous… Just-noticeable difference Kennerley: Organization of action sequences and the… Kenneth Udut | Facebook Know Your Brain: Striatum learning in nematode Learning of Sequences of Finger Movements and Timing: Frontal Lobe and Action-Oriented Representation Learning of sequences of finger movements and timing: Frontal lobe and action-oriented representation Left hemispheric lateralization of brain activity during passive rhythm perception in musicians – Limb – 2006 – The Anatomical Record Part A: Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology – Wiley Online Library left wing memes biden Lingering Sound: Event-Related Phase-Amplitude Coupling and Phase-Locking in Fronto-Temporo-Parietal Functional Networks During Memory Retrieval of Music Melodies Listening to Bacteria | Science| Smithsonian Magazine lock stitch – Search Results | Facebook Longitudinal Analysis of Neural Network Development in Preterm Infants | Cerebral Cortex | Oxford Academic Low ca1 volume comprehension low theta hippocampus main idea cognitive science Malpractice in causal inference Math error: A new study overturns 100-year-old understanding of color perception Mathematical structure Mathematics and the Brain: A Category Theoretical Approach to Go Beyond the Neural Correlates of Consciousness mathematics based upon evolutionary theory Meinongian objects Men Prefer Debt-Free Virgins Without Tattoos – The Transformed Wife Mental state MeSH Browser Midfrontal theta activity in psychiatric illness: an index of cognitive vulnerabilities across disorders Midfrontal Theta Activity in Psychiatric Illness: An Index of Cognitive Vulnerabilities Across Disorders modeling human senses Monadic Bounded Algebras Morgan’s Canon Motor cortex Motor dysfunction as research domain across bipolar, obsessive-compulsive and neurodevelopmental disorders | 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2018.09.009 Motor sequence learning – Scholarpedia motor theta sma muller_imaging_graphic.jpeg (819×1200) Music in premature infants enhances high-level cognitive brain networks Mysticism Neale reading comprehension nematode learning chemotaxis neural basis of conceptualizing the same action at different levels of abstraction | Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience | Oxford Academic Neural circuits in anxiety and stress disorders: a focused review neural correlates of Neural correlates of recollection and familiarity: A review of neuroimaging and patient data Neural correlates of the ‘good life’: eudaimonic well-being is associated with insular cortex volume | Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience | Oxford Academic Neural differences in social and figurative language processing on the autism spectrum Neural theta oscillations support semantic memory retrieval | Scientific Reports Neural-correlates-of-consciousness-Koch-et-al-2016 NEUROBIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS IN SPECIFIC READING COMPREHENSION DEFICIT Neurocognitive Development: Normative Development No, Biden is Not Hiring 87,000 New IRS Agents | Time nominalism Nonexistent Objects Non-mammals Like to Play, Too | Discover Magazine Not all reading disabilities are dyslexia: Distinct neurobiology of specific comprehension deficits. NpgRJ_NN_1727 971..978 Nuclear Bundles of Tropes and Ontological Dependence Object of the mind object oriented brain taxonomy occipital cortex categorization autism occipital cortex categorization blind people Olfaction in the autism spectrum Olfactory and other sensory impairments in Alzheimer disease Olfactory bulb OLFACTORY CIRCUIT CA3 CA1 olfactory entorhinal cortex Ontological commitment Ontologies across disciplines ontology alignment Ontology components orbitofrontal reality filtering orbitofrontal reality filtering test Outcomes in young adulthood for very-low-birth-weight infants overactive amygdala palamite panentheism panentheism is against supernatural Parallels and Contrasts in Indian and Western Philosophy parsimony anthropomorphism evolution perception Perceptual category learning in autism spectrum disorder: Truth and consequences PERFORANT PATH Personality Type phase locked theta 250ms Philosophy and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Philosophy on a Circle Physicists identify unique signature to confirm quark-gluon plasma in Universe | Ars Technica PII: S1364-6613(00)01506-0 platonic realm is a database poor comprehension inference posterior cingulate cortex premature birth pre-supplementary motor area preterm preterm birth adults preterm inference comprehension Processing fluency theory of aesthetic pleasure Processing of affective and emotionally neutral tactile stimuli in the insular cortex proliferative zone neocortex Psychiatric and neurocognitive profile of adults born very preterm quine classes and objects reality winner prison Reddy: Human hippocampal neurons track moments in… Resting State Network Rethinking cognition: From animal to minimal Rethinking cognition: From animal to minimal – PubMed Rethinking cognition: From animal to minimal Rethinking cognition: From animal to minimal | 10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.05.055 Returned to standardized achievement tests in 3rd grade Reward Circuitry Function in Autism During Face Anticipation and Outcomes Rich-club organization of the newborn human brain | PNAS right posteria insula passing of time right superior temporal gyrus enlarged adhd right temporal-parietaljunction (TPJ) and the right IFG “pre-term” Rizzolatti: Neurons related to reaching-grasping… Roberts: A dissociation between stopping and switching… Round_square_copula same concepts in indian and european philosophy Savant Skills, Special Skills, and Intelligence Vary Widely in Autism Scent classification Scent classification by the Chinese schema Schema crosswalk Schemata vs ontology schultz.pdf SCOP formalism Seeing More Than Human: Autism and Anthropomorphic Theory of Mind Seeking pleasant touch: neural correlates of behavioral preferences for skin stroking Selection and inhibition mechanisms for human voluntary action decisions sense Shopping Cart | Office Supplies: Office Products and Office Furniture: Office Depot short term memory model Simon Fitzpatrick – Publications Simon Fitzpatrick, Avoiding anthropocentrism in evolutionarily inclusive ethics Size and Synchronization of Auditory Cortex Promotes Musical, Literacy, and Attentional Skills in Children | Journal of Neuroscience Sluggish cognitive tempo so where do the sensory organs convert to impulses Socio-Emotional Development Following Very Preterm Birth: Pathways to Psychopathology somatic nervous system sonic hedgehog – National Library of Medicine Search Results speed test Spontaneous attentional fluctuations in impaired states and pathological conditions: A neurobiological hypothesis | 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2007.02.005 Status quo Stimulus modality STOP-CHANGE task striatum prefrontal cortex striatum vs hippocampus Structural equation modeling Study Identifies Brain Circuits Involved in Learning and Decision Making – Neuroscience News substance and universal in chinese SWBP_I_10_04-2.pdf SYNCHRONIZED BRAIN OSCILLATIONS LINK DISTANT BRAIN REGIONS THAT ALLOW US TO COMBINE MEMORIES Teacher’s pet personality Telecommunications engineering thalamic relay autism The difference between foreground and background is intent, otherwise they are one. The dual copula strategy The Improvising Mind – Cognition and Creativity in the Musical Moment (Aaron L. Berkowitz) The intimate relationship between coalescent generators in very premature human newborn brains: Quantifying the coupling of nested endogenous oscillations – Moghimi – 2020 – Human Brain Mapping – Wiley Online Library The Neural Correlates of Time- A Meta-analysis of Neuroimaging Studies.pdf The pre-supplementary motor area achieves inhibitory control by modulating response thresholds The preterm behavioral phenotype has been described as anxious and inattentive, rather than hyperactive or disruptive, which may also mean that their cognitive difficulties may not be as readily visible in a classroom setting The right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is essential in time reproduction: an investigation with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation – ProQuest The Role of Imagination in Children With Anxiety The role of the basal ganglia in habit formation | Nature Reviews Neuroscience The role of the pre-supplementary motor area in the control of action The so-called Toba bottleneck didn’t happen – john hawks weblog The Striatum Is Shaped by Language Experience and Musical Training The structure and predictive validity of the internalizing disorders The What, When, Whether Model of Intentional Action The_Hearing_Hippocampus_2022_03_09_no_Fig_3 theory of evolution and religion buddhism hindu christian Theory of intentionality Theory of Mind disruption and recruitment of the right hemisphere during narrative comprehension in autism Thermal fluctuations ‘Theta activity’ in the brain found to be divergent for people with mental health conditions thin particulars Thinker – John von Neumann thinning of corpus callosum preterm TIME OF CONSCIOUS INTENTION TO ACT IN RELATION TO ONSET OF CEREBRAL ACTIVITY (READINESS-POTENTIAL) To get hold of the wrong end of the stick: reasons for poor idiom understanding in children with reading comprehension difficulties. Toba catastrophe theory Tolerance of Ambiguity: A Trait of the Creative Personality? Top-down inputs drive neuronal network rewiring and context-enhanced sensory processing in olfaction Topological Maps and Brain Computations From Low to High Trait Theory Transcendence (philosophy) Transient structural MRI patterns correlate with the motor functions in preterm infants Trope, states, affairs, particulars Tsakiris 2007 Tsakiris: Neural signatures of body ownership: a… Twin studies in generalized anxiety disorder Types of creativity Type–token distinction Understanding specific reading comprehension deficit: A review universals are an index or database of patterns. patterns are repeated things. you need memory to recall patterns. there is no pattern without memory. so: a database. Value judgments and self-control of action: The role of the medial frontal cortex Visually Memorable Neuroanatomy for Beginners Waking up too early – the consequences of preterm birth on sleep development weak panenthesism What is Shannon Information What Is The Smallest Particle We Know? » Science ABC When Music and Long-Term Memory Interact: Effects of Musical Expertise on Functional and Structural Plasticity in the Hippocampus When the world becomes ‘too real’: A Bayesian explanation of autistic perception. where is music memory in the brain? “right atl” Where, When, and How: are they all Sensorimotor? Towards a unified view of the dorsal pathway in vision and audition White Matter Integrity of Specific Dentato-Thalamo-Cortical Pathways is Associated with Learning Gains in Precise Movement Timing | Cerebral Cortex | Oxford Academic Why is task switching so hard? — ADDept youth the years from 10 to 16

Combining 2 tab titles
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hang on: so IMPROVISATION of melody results from DEACTIVATION of the rTPJ ? For context: rTPJ: “The right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ) is frequently associated with different capacities that to shift attention to unexpected stimuli (reorienting of attention) and to understand others’ (false) mental state [theory of mind (ToM), typically represented by false belief tasks]” —- “While we had hypothesized that differences would likely be found in the frontal regions involved in generation and selection of novel motor sequences (e.g., inferior frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsal premotor cortex), we did not predict that the main difference would be in degree of deactivation of a parietal region, nor that the difference would be for melodic improvisation but not rhythmic improvisation, nor that the frontal areas listed above would show no differences between groups. In what follows, after reviewing relevant literature on the purported role of the rTPJ and its deactivation in various cognitive tasks, we propose an explanation for the relevance of expertise-related deactivation of this region during improvisation. We then discuss possible explanations for the lack of group differences during rhythmic improvisation and in the frontal areas seen in our previous study of musicians alone. The rTPJ is thought to be part of a ventral attentional network for bottom-up stimulus-driven processing (for reviews, see Corbetta and Shulman, 2002; Corbetta et al., 2008). Brain imaging results have supported the hypothesis that this region is important for reorienting attention when behaviorally relevant stimuli in any sensory modality are detected (Downar et al., 2000, 2001, and 2002; Kincade et al., 2005; Serences et al., 2005; Corbetta and Shulman, 2002; Corbetta et al., 2008). Deactivation of this region has been postulated to occur in response to top-down signals during goal-driven behavior so as to inhibit attentional shifts toward task-irrelevant stimuli that could cause decrements in performance (Shulman et al., 2003; Todd et al., 2005; for a review, see Corbetta et al., 2008). These top-down signals are thought to serve a filtering function, allowing only taskrelevant stimuli to activate the rTPJ, and preventing a reorienting to task-irrelevant stimuli (Corbetta et al., 2008). In support of such theories of rTPJ function, increasing deactivation of this region has been found to correlate with more successful task performance in target detection (Shulman et al., 2007) and visual short-term memory (Chee and Chuah, 2007), as well as faster reaction times when processing large numbers of objects as opposed to smaller numbers (Ansari et al., 2007). Although deactivation of the rTPJ has been correlated with improved task performance in these contexts, the deactivation of this region as a function of expertise revealed in the present paper is, to our knowledge, a novel finding. The deactivation of the rTPJ cannot be critical for the invention of novel motor sequences: despite a lack of deactivation in this region, nonmusicians achieved a level of novelty in melodic improvisation equivalent to that of the musician group, as evidenced by the lack of difference between the two groups in the percent of unique melodic sequences generated during the melodic improvisation conditions. In light of the prior work on the rTPJ reviewed above, we propose two related (and not mutually exclusive) possibilities for why musicians would demonstrate substantial deactivation of this region during improvisation while nonmusicians do not show any significant change in activity: training-induced changes in goal-directed attention and/or shifts toward a more topdown cognitive strategy. When improvising, musicians are in a goal-driven state of invention, and, at least in the case of our experiment, the pursuit of novelty. It is thus important for their attention not to be distracted by irrelevant stimuli (e.g., in this experiment, scanner noise, errors in intended performance, etc.). The deactivation of the rTPJ region in experienced musicians suggests that their expertise may allow them to enter a more focused attentional state during performance of this task. Moreover, while the deactivations in the rTPJ in the musician group were statistically significant only for conditions involving melodic improvisation, visual inspection of Fig. 2 shows that a trend toward deactivation is seen even with rhythmic improvisation alone (Patterns/Rhythmic Improvisation) and to a lesser degree, with no improvisation at all (Patterns/Metronome). This suggests that musicians are entering a different state of attentional focus than nonmusicians as soon as they engage in even the simple act of playing, and that this effect is particularly heightened during melodic improvisation. Widespread deactivations during the performance of a previously memorized piece of music have been theorized to play a similar role in that context (Parsons et al., 2005). Sustained attention is indeed thought to be a critical cognitive process for creativity (Dietrich, 2004). Thus, one interpretation of the present finding is that musicians may have been more focused and/or goal driven in their task performance, whereas nonmusicians, because of lack of experience, may have been less so. Beyond the general possibility of a more focused goal-driven attentional state, a more specific potential interpretation of the musicians’ deactivation of the rTPJ during improvisation is that they strategized in a more top-down fashion, conceiving of and/or planning their improvised melodies as 5-note groups, and thus inhibiting any sort of stimulus-driven response to what they played while they planned their next improvised sequence. Nonmusicians, lacking musical experience, may have been more dependent on stimulus-driven information (i.e., auditory and sensory feedback) during melodic improvisation. This is consistent with the proposal of a recent fMRI study in which musicians’ and nonmusicians’ brain activity were compared during tasks of rhythmic synchronization, showing overlapping but distinct neural substrates between the two groups (Chen et al., 2008). These authors postulate a model in which musicians use a top-down strategy based on their prior knowledge of musical structure, whereas nonmusicians, without such knowledge, are relegated to bottom-up processing. Our results may indicate a similar training-induced shift toward a top-down processing strategy in improvisation. Such a strategy has also been described in a recent EEG study of the imagery of improvised dance in professionals versus novices (Fink et al., 2009b). In this study, increased alpha synchronization in right temporoparietal and parietooccipital areas in professional dancers as compared to novices was revealed, which the authors interpreted as reflecting top-down inhibition to prevent interference from task-irrelevant information during creative thinking. Top-down inhibition of stimulus-driven attention is also thought to correlate with novel idea generation during creative problem solving in the verbal domain (Fink et al., 2009a). Thus, such top-down inhibition may be an important component of creative thought across domains from Expertise-related deactivation of the right temporoparietal junction during musical improvisation

hang on: so IMPROVISATION
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different thought on pre-sma “We have demonstrated that pre-SMA injury can lead to a selective deficit in the ability to inhibit a response in the context of competition between actions. These findings reflect a cardinal role for this region in the process of resolving competition between action contingencies so that coherent behaviour may emerge. We propose that this process alone may explain the vast bulk of extant data on this region, and that there is therefore no need to invoke less elemental functions in our description of the role of the pre-SMA in action control.

different thought on pre-sma… [read full article]
 

Reading about the idea that consciousness has a cellular basis and is a part of all life in some token. “The difficulty lies in that top-down perspective and has led to a fundamental “category error.” Human consciousness is widely viewed as a separate type of mentation and not, as we maintain, a token on a continuum of sentience. It also has caused misunderstandings and problems in the current attempts to explore the cognitive behavior in bacteria, protozoa, slime molds, and plants which, we maintain, is based on cellular consciousness. Core mental processes, like agency based on learning, memory, cognition, and decision-making, were viewed as essentially human faculties and only grudgingly granted to other species when the data were overwhelming. In fact, early attempts to expand these basic, fundamental biological concepts to other species were dismissed as anthropomorphic fallacies [22]. Our argument is that human consciousness needs to be viewed within an evolutionary context where, over geologic time, a vast array of forms of minds emerged, each adaptive in the environment within which it existed. “

Reading about the idea
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