It is difficult to think of a single field of study that includes all of the concepts you listed. Many of these concepts are relevant to multiple fields and can be studied from various disciplinary perspectives. For example, concepts such as evolution, adaptation, growth, development, and decay are important in biology and have also been studied in fields such as economics, psychology, and sociology. Similarly, concepts such as interdependence, interconnectedness, complexity, and hierarchy are important in fields such as economics and political science, but also have applications in other fields such as biology and computer science.
However, there are some fields that aim to study complex systems and processes in a broad and interdisciplinary manner. For example, systems thinking is a field that aims to understand and analyze complex systems and the relationships between their parts. It often incorporates concepts such as integration, separation, unity, differentiation, interdependence, interconnectedness, complexity, cohesion, harmony, evolution, adaptation, change, emergence, self-organization, growth, development, decay, stability, instability, symmetry, asymmetry, order, disorder, pattern, randomness, hierarchy, function, dysfunction, cause, effect, feedback, interaction, emergence, self-organization, control, regulation, learning, memory, perception, decision-making, communication, cooperation, competition. Systems thinking can be applied to a wide range of fields, including biology, psychology, economics, sociology, physics, and more.