Spreadsheets are an example of:
(a paradigm for solving combinatorial problems)
Perturbation model: variables in the problem are assigned a single initial value. At different times one or more variables receive perturbations (changes to their old value), and the system propagates the change trying to assign new values to other variables that are consistent with the perturbation.
IN CONTRAST TO:
Refinement model: variables in the problem are initially unassigned, and each variable is assumed to be able to contain any value included in its range or domain. As computation progresses, values in the domain of a variable are pruned if they are shown to be incompatible with the possible values of other variables, until a single value is found for each variable.