Social Systems: Transformation of External Reality by Communicating, Reflexive Subjects, January 2021 The origin of social systems lies in the emergence of the structure of the human subject who can incorporate an internal image of the external world. This structure, established on the basis of the dynamic referral of the conscious subject (self) to its symbolic image, acquires the potential to rationally describe the external world through the semantic structure of language. It has been modeled in reflexive psychology using the algebra of simple relations which are, in fact, dynamic oppositions that generate, at the same time, opposite models of behavior and the diverse organizations of societies. The invention of new ideas and implementation of new technologies shift the probability pattern of reflexive choices, appearing as internal assessments by the individual agents within a society. They direct the changes in the preference of reflexive types. Typical examples of reflexive types are those that correspond to alternative social structures formed during social evolution. The dynamics of societies and of interactions between societies are thus based on the interference of dynamic oppositions appearing as opposite reflexive structures and on the establishment of different patterns during such interferences. These are opposite in respect of the types of relation to other members of society and to the type of social organization. At different times in the history of human civilization, these changing patterns resulted in the formation and splitting of large empires, the development and spreading of new technologies, and consequent periods of growth, well-being and decline and decay. This chapter summarizes and develops the approach to social science suggested in the paper of Igamberdiev (Igamberdiev in Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 131:336–347, 2017). Joseph E. Brenner Abir U Igamberdiev

Social Systems: Transformation of External Reality by Communicating, Reflexive Subjects, January 2021
 
The origin of social systems lies in the emergence of the structure of the human subject who can incorporate an internal image of the external world. This structure, established on the basis of the dynamic referral of the conscious subject (self) to its symbolic image, acquires the potential to rationally describe the external world through the semantic structure of language. It has been modeled in reflexive psychology using the algebra of simple relations which are, in fact, dynamic oppositions that generate, at the same time, opposite models of behavior and the diverse organizations of societies. The invention of new ideas and implementation of new technologies shift the probability pattern of reflexive choices, appearing as internal assessments by the individual agents within a society. They direct the changes in the preference of reflexive types. Typical examples of reflexive types are those that correspond to alternative social structures formed during social evolution. The dynamics of societies and of interactions between societies are thus based on the interference of dynamic oppositions appearing as opposite reflexive structures and on the establishment of different patterns during such interferences. These are opposite in respect of the types of relation to other members of society and to the type of social organization. At different times in the history of human civilization, these changing patterns resulted in the formation and splitting of large empires, the development and spreading of new technologies, and consequent periods of growth, well-being and decline and decay. This chapter summarizes and develops the approach to social science suggested in the paper of Igamberdiev (Igamberdiev in Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 131:336–347, 2017).
 
Joseph E. Brenner
Abir U Igamberdiev

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