Retrosplenial Cortex (RSC) notes from this:
Two cortical systems for memory guided behaviour https://www.thememolab.org/pdf/RR2012_NRN.pdf
The RSC has extensive reciprocal connections with the PHC, but connections between the RSC and PRC are relatively sparse
PHC and RSC have more connectivity from earlier occipital and temporal areas.
The RSC also shows enhanced activation during successful memory retrieval84, particularly during successful recollection of contextual information88–90. One difference between PHC and RSC involvement in memory tasks is that PHC activity is typically associated with successful encoding and successful retrieval of context information, whereas activity in the RSC (along with anatomically connected areas in the default network) is only reliably associated with successful recollection during retrieval, and it is often negatively associated with successful encoding
the RSC may be more attuned to internal sources of information
Patients with RSC damage show retrograde amnesia for autobiographical events
RSC responses scale with the degree of subjective ‘reliving’ during autobiographical memory retrieval
. Similarly, rats with RSC lesions show impaired recognition of novel locations and object–location associations, despite demonstrating normal object recognition. RSC lesions also result in impairments to contextual fear conditioning and performance on the radial arm and Morris water mazes
t the PHC and RSC are important for spatial memory, including spatial layouts and the locations of objects in these environments
The RSC also shows heightened responses to images of scenes132,133 and objects with strong associations to a particular situational contex
. Unlike the PHC, the RSC does not have place cells but instead has head direction cells that selectively respond when an animal’s head is pointing to a particular direction in space, thereby providing crucial input about self-motion and orientation within a spatial context. Furthermore, damage to the RSC in humans is not associated with difficulties with scene perception135 and instead is associated with topographical amnesia96,135,136, a syndrome in which one is unable to use landmarks to orient oneself. Thus, these patients have intact scene recognition but cannot apply it to guide navigation behaviour.
during scene perception and spatial navigation: the PHC appears to represent information about visuospatial contexts and the RSC integrates information that is crucial to orient oneself within the context.
Social cognition. Studies of social cognition indicate that the RSC is sensitive to the processing of self-relevant information. For example, the RSC, along with anatomically connected regions in the default network, is more active when personality traits are evaluated with respect to how well they describe oneself versus another137–139. Furthermore, the regions that show this effect overlap with regions that are active during imagining future personal events138 and episodic memory retrieval140. The RSC has also been implicated in several other aspects of social cognition, including moral decision making141 and theory of mind99
and the RSC may integrate these external cues with information derived from internal sources that help to associate different cues within a coherent situation
how to navigate in familiar landmarks and familiar specific social situations and familiar moral decision-making from internal cues.