It’s far more than I’d expected to come out of any significant candidate. That Biden is listening says a lot to me as presidential candidate. That’s why I don’t mind his shifting positions progressively through the years. He doesn’t go backwards. Trump 1994 may = Trump 2020 but Biden 1994 =/= Biden 2020. It’s a point not expressed enough I think.

It’s far more than
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So, my interest is what happens at 250ms and under. Event markers that are electrical in the brain are: Negativity: N100 • Visual N1 • N170 • N200 • N2pc • N400 Positivity: P200 • P300 • P3a • P3b • Late positive component • P600 I can eliminate the N400, P300, P3a, P3b, “Late positive component”, P600. I’ll have to look up what the N2pc is. What’s left is: N100, Visual N1, N170, N200, P200. They all fall under 250ms.

So, my interest is
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Jera Wolfe what fascinates me here with this at this low level of organization (echoic) is two things: a) these are mechanical means to move the data from a continuum or stream into a combination of continuous and discrete. So the experience of sound at this level consists of some discrete data that will continue on for further processing and also continuous data that will never make it into our long-term memory. Our brains cannot process raw continual stream. But within a brief window we can directly experience some of it. 2) these are mechanical processes that take place over time. This justifies two things to me: I am justified in using discrete math, particularly computation. I am justified in treating time as real and not an illusion.

Jera Wolfe what fascinates … [read full article]


To research: “partial closure” “Primitive Grouping When some aspect of the acoustical environment changes sufficiently, a boundary is created. This boundary defines where a grouping begins or ends, and is the most basic kind of feature that is detected in the earliest stages of perception. Often referred to as “closure,” the establishment of grouping boundaries is the quality that makes a grouping seem relatively self-contained and separate from other group- ings. Closure is not necessarily absolute: Groupings may exhibit many degrees of closure. This is a basic way in which some groupings are related to others, forming higher level groupings of groupings. Partial closure is a very important force in developing hierarchical structure in music and language, and will be dealt with in detail later.”

To research: “partial closure”… [read full article]


“Features that happen at or near the same time or are related in other ways are then thought to be correlated and bound into units (see von der Marlsburg, 1996). These units are auditory events. For instance, when a number of frequencies that are whole- number multiples of each other begin at the same time, a pitch event consisting of overtones is perceived. This simultaneous auditory grouping binds the isolated outputs from separate feature extractors into coherent auditory events. The purpose of this process is to reconstruct discrete sound events in the world, which usually have several correlated acoustical characteristics that happen simultaneously. This binding of perceptual features is a basic form of association (see Fuster, 1995: 102; Edelman, 1989: 48; Edelman, 1992: 87–90). That is, when particular features occur together, the groups of neurons that constitute their feature extractors are 4 thought to communicate with each other (Bharucha, 1999: 425–427). These con- nected features become a representation of some particular kind of event: a per- ceptual category. Further occurrences of this kind of event will then be processed through some of these same groups of neurons. A simplified example of perceptual binding might be combining the change that indicates the beginning of a note with its frequency and its tone color (each extracted by different specialized groups of neurons) to produce the impression of a coherent note starting at a particular time with a particular frequency and tone color. These note events are the auditory equiv- alent of visual objects, which are also formed from the binding of separate features such as edges, shape, color, and texture. This formation of coherent auditory events from separate acoustical features is a form of perceptual categorization. Catego- rization is a grouping together of things into a higher-level unit, and in this sense the binding together of features into a single musical event makes that event a basic auditory category.”

“Features that happen at … [read full article]


I Echoic memory – basic auditory processing from continuous to basic categories. 250ms-4s processing time. “At this point, the information becomes categorical and is no longer a continuous sensory representation, although there may be a “remainder” of continuous information that is not categorized. This remainder may be available to consciousness, although it may not interact with long-term memory; we can immediately hear more than we can remember.”

Echoic memory – basic … [read full article]