• Pluralism as an ontological framework: diversity, multiplicity, heterogeneity, difference, variety
  • Pluralism as an axiology framework: tolerance, acceptance, respect, open-mindedness, inclusivity
  • Pluralism as an aesthetics framework: beauty, creativity, expressiveness, imagination, innovation

From an epistemological framework:

  • Empiricism
  • Rationalism
  • Constructivism
  • Realism
  • Pragmatism
  • Relativism

From a methodological framework:

  • Positivism
  • Interpretivism
  • Critical theory
  • Phenomenology
  • Grounded theory
  • Case study

From a pluralistic framework:

  • Diversity
  • Inclusivity
  • Openness
  • Tolerance
  • Acceptance
  • Integration
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