I have NOTHING in my papers from the first author of the paper, but from the SECOND author, Edward L Large, I had ONE from 1999:
The dynamics of attending: How people track time-varying events
Yes yes, proof: you ANTICIPATE the beat whether you hear it or not. Confirmed with a neuroscience skull cap with sensors.
“As in the current study, previous findings showed that omitting a sound in an otherwise isochronous train of sounds elicits brain responses similar to when the sound was physically present”
Not just rhythm anticipation but TONAL omissions were anticipated and fired in the brain AS IF THEY HEARD THEM -in SOME subjects.
Mental musical notes confirmed. Beautiful!
“The present study extends previous findings by demonstrating that induced high frequency often
precedes the onset of expected events, generally precedes evoked activity, and is observed even when expected sounds are omitted. The current findings further showed that
emitted potentials show specificity to the metrical position
of the expected sound. Some subjects additionally showed
evoked activity following tone omissions, demonstrating
precisely phase locked high-frequency activity, thus revealing extremely precise timing of neural activity in anticipation of sensory events.”
visual is overall far more useful from an information processing perspective; being so massively parallel and all – but the slight ms advantage goes to the auditory system