Well, versions of it can certainly be found in ancient religious texts.
“The appearance of the wheels and their workings was like the color of beryl, and all four had the same likeness. The appearance of their workings was, as it were, a wheel within the middle of a wheel”
Sounds like a description of the visual (not time) fourth dimension to me.
Some of the stuff that came out of India around that time had some of that nature as well – pretty sophisticated systems of thought that were definitely involving multiple simultaneous perspectives.
I don’t believe our biological capability to think stuff has changed. Just the way we go about it.