My hunch – and it was a hunch: was right; you only need muscle spindles working to have a sense of body ownership. “This is my body”.
Body ownership and a new proprioceptive role for muscle spindles
Knowledge of which body parts belong to us is referred to as the sense of body ownership. There is increasing evidence that this important aspect of human proprioception is highly malleable. Research into ownership of individual body parts was stimulated by Botvinick and Cohen’s rubber‐hand illusion (Nature 391,1998, 756), which demonstrated that an artificial body part can be incorporated in one’s body representation and can cause real body parts to be sensed erroneously. Here, we review key studies that have advanced our understanding of the sense of body ownership, including the important role played by multisensory integration and spatiotemporal congruence of sensory signals. We also discuss our recent discovery that body ownership can be induced in response to movement stimuli by signals from a single class of sensory receptor, namely muscle spindles.