More on ∃: “Many languages form existential clauses without any particular marker by simply using forms of the normal copula verb (the equivalent of English be), the subject being the noun (phrase) referring to the thing whose existence is asserted. For example, the Finnish sentence Pihalla on poikia, meaning “There are boys in the yard”, is literally “On the yard is boys”. Some languages have a different verb for that purpose: Swedish finnas has Det finns pojkar på gården, literally “It is found boys on the yard”. On the other hand, some languages do not require a copula at all, and sentences analogous to “In the yard boys” are used. Some languages use the verb have; for example Serbo-Croatian U dvorištu ima dječaka is literally “In the yard has boys”.[1] Some languages form the negative of existential clauses irregularly; for example, in Russian, есть yest (“there is/are”) is used in affirmative existential clauses (in the present tense), but the negative equivalent is нет nyet (“there is/are not”), used with the logical subject in the genitive case. In English, existential clauses usually use the dummy subject construction (also known as expletive) with there, as in “There are boys in the yard”, but there is sometimes omitted when the sentence begins with another adverbial (usually designating a place), as in “In my room (there) is a large box.” Other languages with constructions similar to the English dummy subject include French (see il y a) and German, which uses es ist, es sind or es gibt, literally “it is”, “it are”, “it gives”.”

More on ∃:
“Many languages form existential clauses without any particular marker by simply using forms of the normal copula verb (the equivalent of English be), the subject being the noun (phrase) referring to the thing whose existence is asserted. For example, the Finnish sentence Pihalla on poikia, meaning “There are boys in the yard”, is literally “On the yard is boys”. Some languages have a different verb for that purpose: Swedish finnas has Det finns pojkar på gården, literally “It is found boys on the yard”. On the other hand, some languages do not require a copula at all, and sentences analogous to “In the yard boys” are used. Some languages use the verb have; for example Serbo-Croatian U dvorištu ima dječaka is literally “In the yard has boys”.[1]

Some languages form the negative of existential clauses irregularly; for example, in Russian, есть yest (“there is/are”) is used in affirmative existential clauses (in the present tense), but the negative equivalent is нет nyet (“there is/are not”), used with the logical subject in the genitive case.

In English, existential clauses usually use the dummy subject construction (also known as expletive) with there, as in “There are boys in the yard”, but there is sometimes omitted when the sentence begins with another adverbial (usually designating a place), as in “In my room (there) is a large box.” Other languages with constructions similar to the English dummy subject include French (see il y a) and German, which uses es ist, es sind or es gibt, literally “it is”, “it are”, “it gives”.”

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