Metaphor test. How are these similar? (1) BIRD – AIRPLANE (2) SWORD – PISTOL (3) ORANGE – BALL (4) SUN – LIGHTBULB (5) PAPER – LEAF (6) PEAK – NEEDLE (7) ROAD – RIVER (8) LOVE – DRUG (9) MOUNTAIN – OBSTACLE (10) CIRCLE – NECKLACE (11) LONELINESS – DESERT (12) RIDDLE – LABYRINTH (13) TIME – RIVER (14) CORPORATION – TREE (15) TAVERN – CHURCH (16) THEORY – BUILDING (17) DIAMOND – SNOWFLAKE (18) MEMORY – PRISON (19) KEY – ANSWER (20) MARRIAGE – ALLOY

Metaphor test. How are these similar?
(1) BIRD – AIRPLANE
(2) SWORD – PISTOL
(3) ORANGE – BALL
(4) SUN – LIGHTBULB
(5) PAPER – LEAF
(6) PEAK – NEEDLE
(7) ROAD – RIVER
(8) LOVE – DRUG
(9) MOUNTAIN – OBSTACLE
(10) CIRCLE – NECKLACE
(11) LONELINESS – DESERT
(12) RIDDLE – LABYRINTH
(13) TIME – RIVER
(14) CORPORATION – TREE
(15) TAVERN – CHURCH
(16) THEORY – BUILDING
(17) DIAMOND – SNOWFLAKE
(18) MEMORY – PRISON
(19) KEY – ANSWER
(20) MARRIAGE – ALLOY

——

ANSWER KEY: (don’t peak until ready)

Semantic Similarities Test (Scoring Key)

(1) BIRD – AIRPLANE (2 pts = fly; 1 pt = both have wings, can be seen in the sky)

(2) SWORD – PISTOL (2 pts = weapons; 1 pt = dangerous, both have a handle, can do damage)

(3) ORANGE – BALL (2 pts = round, sphere; 1 pt = circle, endless, similar shape)

(4) SUN – LIGHTBULB (2 pts = emit/give/provide light, illuminate, source of light; 1 pt = bright,
shiny)

(5) PAPER – LEAF (2 pts = flat/thin sheet, plant/tree product; 1 pt = can be torn, can wrap things,
light weight, fragile)

(6) PEAK – NEEDLE (2 pts = pointed tip, pointy/pointed, convex; 1 pt = sharp, stick-like, can poke)

(7) ROAD – RIVER (2 pts = transportation paths, pathways, can travel/ride on them; 1 pt = both
flow, continuous, go for a long stretch, long and narrow, lead somewhere)

(8) LOVE – DRUG (2 pts = addictive, affect brain/thinking, impair judgment; 1 pt = toxic,
intoxicating, alter a person, affect actions, give adrenaline, make you do irrational things, provide
pleasure)

(9) MOUNTAIN – OBSTACLE (2 pts = have to/difficult to overcome, impediments/barriers to
progress, get in the way;1 pt = take effort, difficult)

(10) CIRCLE – NECKLACE (2 pts = round, closed loop, circular, round, ring-like, enclosed; 1 pt =
similar shape, never ending, go around something, infinite, have an empty space in the middle)

(11) LONELINESS – DESERT (2 pts = emptiness, lack of people, desolate, isolation; 1 pt = barren,
drive someone crazy, boring, vast, sad) (12) RIDDLE – LABYRINTH (2 pts = puzzle, hard to find path/solution, can be solved; 1 pt =
complex, challenging, confusing, tricky, mysterious)

(13) TIME – RIVER (2 pts = flow in one direction, always passing/moving towards/forward, flow
(continuously), keep/constantly moving; 1 pt = continuous, cannot be stopped, never ending,
running, run)

(14) CORPORATION – TREE (2 pts = hierarchical/bottom-up structure, hierarchy, branching; 1 pt =
both grow, have a strong base/foundation, start of small, can be climbed, have levels)

(15) TAVERN – CHURCH (2 pts = public building, building where people
gather/congregate/meet/convene; 1 pt = building, structure, shelter, both offer
solace/comfort/safety)

(16) THEORY – BUILDING (2 pts = organized structures, include framework, have solid
foundations, have to be constructed; 1pt = encompass smaller parts, can be built upon, complex,
it takes time to develop them, designed by humans, supported by other things, originate from an
idea)

(17) DIAMOND – SNOWFLAKE (2 pts = crystalline structure, multi-facetted, contain repeated
geometric patterns; 1 pt = sparkly, shiny, unique, complex, translucent, delicate, products of
nature)

(18) MEMORY – PRISON (2 pts = confining, difficult to escape, limiting, hold captive; 1 pt = trap,
both store/hold entities, lead to stress)

(19) KEY – ANSWER (2 pts = achieve goals, open up new possibilities/discoveries; 1 pt = both
solve a problem, solutions, provide access/means to an end, unlocks)

(20) MARRIAGE – ALLOY (2 pts = blending/melding/bond/fusion/amalgamation/combination of
two elements, two elements coming together, stable union; 1 pt = combination (and alike w/o
two things/elements), malleable, fuse, bonds)

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Surprise: This was a test for FLUID vs CRYSTALIZED intelligence. Hypothesis is that crystalized intelligence is enough for MOST metaphors. In short, a word search for “the right ones” that are hiding among conceptual categories. Left Temporal Lobe.

“Fluid intelligence is closely linked to analogical reasoning (Holyoak, 2012), whereas verbal crystalized intelligence is likely to impact conceptual combination (which is postulated to depend on lexical semantics). In order to measure crystalized verbal intelligence as it may relate to metaphor comprehension, we developed a new Semantic Similarities Test (SST).”

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I don’t know what the scores really mean either yet (I didn’t finish reading the paper). But I was VERY surprised that I found it had actual ANSWERS — AND that mine matched up (as did yours).

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