Looking at abductive reasoning, the “surprise” element is generally a big part of it. So, how does the NERVOUS system handle surprise? It doesn’t like surprise. While listening to music, the auditory system continually attempts to predict the next musical note. I always wondered why I would be annoyed when a piece of music would play the “wrong notes” (when it wasn’t a piece of music I composed but someone else’s:) It’s because I _was_ composing it as it went along, and *I* would have played a _different_ set of notes than they did. The surprise mechanism is a part of that. Now I know. “For example, when we are listening to a string of sounds that appears to be unpredictable, such as a Charlie Parker-esque saxophone solo, our brain will still try to predict what the next note will be (Figure 1A).” {abductive reasoning is considered part of the ‘eureka’ of scientific hypothesis generating and also discovery)

Looking at abductive reasoning, the “surprise” element is generally a big part of it. So, how does the NERVOUS system handle surprise?
 
It doesn’t like surprise. While listening to music, the auditory system continually attempts to predict the next musical note.
 
I always wondered why I would be annoyed when a piece of music would play the “wrong notes” (when it wasn’t a piece of music I composed but someone else’s:)
 
It’s because I _was_ composing it as it went along, and *I* would have played a _different_ set of notes than they did.
 
The surprise mechanism is a part of that. Now I know.
 
“For example, when we are listening to a string of sounds that
appears to be unpredictable, such as a Charlie Parker-esque saxophone solo, our brain will still try to predict what the next note will be (Figure 1A).”
 
{abductive reasoning is considered part of the ‘eureka’ of scientific hypothesis generating and also discovery)
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“Surprises actually cause humans to physically freeze for 1/25th of a second. Then they  usually trigger something in the brain that Luna calls “find” — a moment that causes humans to generate extreme curiosity in an attempt to figure out what is happening.”
 
1/25th of a second = 40ms:
that’s within the range I’d been looking at (under 50ms). Makes sense that “freeze” comes before “freeze/fight/flight”.
 
https://www.pri.org/stories/2015-04-02/heres-what-happens-after-surprise
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