Logic of Value. I’m Skimming: Language, Consciousness,
Culture, Essays on Mental Structure by Ray Jackendoff
– Affective value (A-value) A situation or action has A-value for an individual X if it yields pleasure or suffering, if it feels good or feels bad to X.
- Utility (U-value) A situation or action has U-value for an individual X if it yields a benefit or exacts a cost, if it is good for X or bad for X. I will often lump A-value and U-value together as A/U-value.
- Resource value (R-value) An object has R-value if it is valuable, if it is good for someone to have.
- Quality (Q-value) The Q-value of an object or action is measured relative to other objects or actions of the same type, usually in terms of its function. Thus we speak of a good/excellent computer or a bad/poor back dive.
- Prowess (P-value) The P-value of a person is measured by quality of performance at some task: the person is good/excellent at doing suchand-such or bad/poor at doing such-and-such.
- Normative value (N-value) N-value concerns conformity to social norms, including moral/ethical norms, religious norms, and cultural norms such as customs, manners, and etiquette. A person’s action has N-value to the extent that it conforms to norms. We say it was good/ right of X to do such-and-such or bad/wrong of X to do such-and-such.
- Personal normative value (PN-value) A person has PN-value to the extent that he or she conforms to social norms. We speak of a person with positive PN-value as being good or virtuous, and of one with negative PN-value as being bad or wicked.
- Esteem (E-value) E-value concerns the overall social value of a person and represents a composite of PN-value, P-value, dominance, and other factors. We speak of a person with high E-value as being prestigious or respected