Knowledge Across Reference Frames: Cognitive Maps and Image Spaces (link below)
Figure 1. Allocentric and Egocentric Organization of Spatial and Nonspatial Conceptual Domains.
(A) Firing of a place cell (left) and a grid cell (right) recorded from the rat hippocampus and entorhinal cortex, respectively (adapted, with permission, from ). (Upper panel) Spike locations (red dots) are shown on the animal’s path (black line) through a square enclosure. (Lower panel) Autocorrelation firing fields reveal the unique spatial field of place cells (left) and the regular hexagonal field of grid cells (right).
(B) (Upper panel) Hexadirectional blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal emerging in the entorhinal cortex, measured by fMRI during navigation in a virtual circular arena (adapted, with permission, from ). (Lower panel) A hexadirectional BOLD signal, measured by fMRI, also emerges in the entorhinal cortex during navigation of an abstract ‘bird space’ (adapted, with permission, from ).
(C) A machine-learning algorithm trained on distinguishing between spatially far or close objects based on fMRI activity in the inferior parietal lobe (IPL) can also distinguish between sentences referring to the close or far future, and between pictures of emotionally close or far friends .
(D) (Left panel) Spatialized representation of the flow of time along the horizontal axis is modulated by the egocentric experience of rightward or leftward orthography. (Right panel) The spatialized representation of valence along the horizontal axis is instead modulated by the egocentric experience of spatial fluency: ‘right is good’ for right-handed people, ‘left is good’ for left-handers.
(E) Graphic representation of the experiment conducted by Bisiach and Luzzatti in two neglect patients . The egocentric representation of Piazza Duomo (upper panel), which depends on parietal circuits, when retrieved from memory is affected by neglect. However, the fact that the patients could remember the whole piazza by simply changing their point of view suggests that an allocentric representation is stored (arguably in the hippocampal formation) and it is not affected by the parietal lesion that caused the neglect.
(F) (Left panel) Allocentric organization of social conceptual space where the position of an individual in a social network is represented depending on the position of other people. (Right panel) Egocentric organization of social conceptual space where the position of an individual in a social network is represented depending on the position of an observer. Abbreviation: ERH, entorhinal cortex.