I’ve made good progress I think. I try to find things in productive use that are similar enough to how I think things work but are more state-of-the-art in their fields. Not always easy because I won’t “know it until I see it” – so it can take a while.
Exactly. This is why my take has been to use my disposition and cognitive style as the guide for the research explicitly. I won’t find universals but I may at least find justifications for my positions that are in productive use.
I don’t think there’s no possibility of answers. But I think there’s a possibility that you may never find answers that fulfill your criteria.
It’s pragmatic that we treat 1+1=2 “as if” it has an independent reality because: life is short and it’s quicker to stick it in its own distinctive realm. Plus it’s part of Western civilization since Plato at least if not prior. But… ultimately I think it’s a biological process that’s emergent yet not really just bottom up but also top down – constraints bring out the information from out of the entropy.
My go to for what you’re talking about might fit into “types”. That is, there may be bridges between types but generally, types spend most of their existence as incompatible with one another.