if the path from non-verbal to abstract language communication were a communication protocol like TCP, what would the handshake look like? (this would compress 24 months of human cognitive/social development) Do any existing protocols use the same pattern for handshaking and negotiating meaning and building understanding? Contrast with development of pidgins?
- • Voice amplification system.
- • Labial reading.
- • Tactile speech reading (Tadoma method; Tactiling).
- • Sign language:
- Non adapted;
- Adapted (e.g. sign language in a narrow residual field of vision; in front of the face; tactile sign language, etc.).
- • Fingerspelling (spelling difficult words or proper nouns in space in a narrow visual field or tactilely).
- • Print-on-palm.
- • Writing:
- Paper support with black marker;
- Dry erase board;
- Computer with increased font size onscreen or equipped with a screen reader, screen magnification software (e.g. ZoomText) or Braille display device;
- Fingerspelling and writing in the hand;
- • Reference-to-object systems (e.g. presentation of an object for purposes of description, anticipation or reminder; communication board).
- • Pointing.
- • Technological aids:
- Braille writing and tactile systems (e.g. Braille note taker; TellaTouch, which allows the deafblind person to read in Braille the message produced by the interlocutor from the device’s standard keyboard; TeleBraille, etc.);
- Telephone systems for the deaf (visual screen) or deafblind (refreshable Braille display);
- Other technological systems (e.g. Light Writer).
The Prain et al. (2010) review of literature shows that many of these individuals never develop formal language and communicate rather by body movements, muscular tension, postures and gestures. They manifest stereotypical and idiosyncratic behaviour, meaning peculiar to each, and therefore their potential communication partners must be aware and skilled in interpretation. Even when living in a specialized residence, their personal interactions may be rare, as shown in the Prain et al. (2010) study. These researchers observed, in a specialized residence, normally occurring interactions between adults with congenital deafblindness and caregiving personnel. But the deafblind residents were very disengaged and their interactions with the personnel were rare .
Half-duplex is usually preferred for clear communication in humans but we actually engage in full-duplex most of the time: thinking of our response while also listening at the same time. A true half-duplex would be “hanging onto every word” of the speaker/writer and not processing until finished receiving.