I) Ontologies in computer science are long databases of relationships, usually three columns.
“ An Ontology is a tuple O = (C, P, I, S) where C, P and I are finite sets, whose elements are called concepts, properties and instances, respectively, and S is a set of rules, propositions or axioms that specify the rela- tions among concepts, properties and instances.”
It can reduce ambiguity for users.
I a) People have their own ontologies which could be called worldviews or maybe just glossaries (special dictionaries). Jargon.
Genetics has an ontology as does dog breeding and computer science and aeronautics and cosmetics and fans of kpop and kripke.
I b ) they can use the same words sometimes as each other but may mean different things.
I c) it can also be found as locational, racial, economic class and generational : inside jokes, common sense ( which feels common to them because it is common amongst their family and friends, maybe people of their age range, maybe their politics too). It may be used and practiced so frequently that it becomes part of their implicit reasoning – no thinking required. its a honed skill to use that ontology as its part of their daily language and thinking, even dreams.
I d) it can also be taught institutionally. ”what does the author mean in this paragraph?”. Schools in the United States have a category called “listening comprehension”. If you exhibit the neurotypical thinking of someone from your culture, subculture, economic class and upbringing and generation and age range, SUPPOSEDLY you will come up with the same answers as somebody else with a similar set of parameters. US schools teach to what they consider normal and it includes expecting a particular kind of implicit thinking / mind reading.
If you were raised in a different culture, or not what is considered neurotypical such as autistic or ADHD, or even so much as simply having an allergy flaring up during a test or are preoccupied with something else, you might not do well on this kind of task if at all.
We each use multiple ontologies. In linguistics it’s called “registers”.
US Schools use their own ontology, much of it stemming from a guy named Bloom. Conforming to understanding and using this ontology is part of success in school.
I was going to lead to this different from the logic as it is taught and is part of human “closed world, non monotonic reasoning” (which I just learned) and how autistic people are good at adding and subtracting from the rules which is a form of abductive Reasoning ( the “S” or set of axioms as seen on top here) but NOT at creating situational exceptions that aren’t explicitly requested properly (“listening comprehension” asks impossible questions to young autistics for example ) and where it comes from and how it operates differently (some from personal experience, some me adding rules right now, some from things I read earlier) …
… but it would be too long.