I knew if I kept at it, eventually I’d find the time.
“Knowing an event will occur at a particular moment in time generates temporal predictions that facilitate stimulus processing.
Left inferior parietal cortex (IPC)
mediates this process, whether the prediction is being used to
enhance motor speed (Coull & Nobre, 1998; Cotti, Rohenkohl, Stokes, Nobre & Coull, 2011) or
perceptual discrimination (Davranche, Nazarian, Vidal & Coull, 2011),
whether it is generated from visual (e.g., Coull & Nobre, 1998) or
auditory (Bolger, Coull, & Schön, in press) sources, or even whether it is
triggered endogenously by learned sensory cues (e.g., Coull & Nobre, 1998) or
exogenously by the temporal (e.g., rhythmic) structure of the event itself (Bolger et al., in press; Marchant & Driver, 2013).
Even when there is no sensory input to generate temporal predictions,
the forward flow of time itself
can be used to generate and update predictions dynamically. As time elapses, the increasing conditional probability that an event will occur given that it has not already occurred (the “hazard function”) leads to an ever-heightening sense of temporal certainty.
Empirically, the longer we wait for an event to occur, the more certain we are of its occurrence, and so the faster we are to respond to it (Niemi & Näätänen, 1981). “