Within Islam, as you know, there is the available tradition of https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sufism
Within Eastern Orthodox Christiandom, there are the concept of the http://orthodoxwiki.org/Nous for example and Noetic Prayer.
Within Buddhism, there is https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhavana for example.
Within Western Christiandom (post schism) you have https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guigo_II for the start of a uniquely Western Christian form, with others that followed.
In secularism (and pop psychology in particular) we have a concept of “true self” (vs false self) and a dozen different names like “inner child” and whatnot which addresses similar issues.
All valid and useful methods for betterment. Available within each of the traditions.