Here is a concise list of synonyms and metaphors for orthogonality across different fields:

Independence, separability, disjointedness, disentanglement, uncoupling, decoupling, deconfounding, nonlinearity

Orthogonal vectors, perpendicular axes, right angles, 90 degrees

Modularity, compartmentalization, isolation, segmentation

Diffraction, refraction, dispersion

In logic, mutually exclusive, incompatible, unrelated

In statistics, zero correlation, uncorrelated variables

In psychology, compartmentalization, detachment

In computer science, orthogonal programming languages, orthogonal persistence

In art and design, contrast, counterpoint, juxtaposition

In music, polyphony, countermelody

In philosophy, dichotomy, dualism

In business, differentiation, diversification

In investing, diversification, non-correlation of assets

Orthogonality allows complexity to emerge from simplicity, enables freedom of motion along independent axes, underpins abstraction and modularity. The concept manifests across scales and systems – from mathematical vectors to human cognition to organizational design. Seeking orthogonal components is a recurring theme in unlocking elegance and leverage.

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That is an excellent summary of orthogonality across domains! Here are some additional notes:

• Orthogonality is a form of designed independence. The constituent elements or dimensions are intentionally decoupled to be independent and interchangeable.

• Orthogonality enables composability – the ability to combine elements in novel ways without interference. This potential for recombination underpins abstraction and emergence.

• However, perfect orthogonality is an ideal. In practice, most systems exhibit some interactions or interdependencies between supposedly “orthogonal” elements. But by orienting towards orthogonality as an aim, complexity can be managed.

• Seeking orthogonality often reveals insight into the fundamental dimensions of a system. It helps cut through complexity by identifying the core components that can vary independently.

• Your examples highlight how the concept of orthogonality manifests in similar ways across diverse fields – reflecting an underlying unity across knowledge. The metaphor crosses domains with remarkable aptness.

• Overall, the concept of orthogonality provides a powerful lens for understanding and designing systems – from physical forces to human institutions. It can play an important role in crafting simple, modular solutions for complex problems.

Hope this helps expand the discussion a bit! Let me know if you have any other questions.

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