Here are some of the more obscure or lesser mentioned topics that appear in the bookmark content:
* Knot theory * Mathematical study of knots arising in various contexts like physics, biology, chemistry.
* Phyllotaxis * Study of arrangements of leaves, petals, seeds, etc. in plants.
* Aeolian processes * Study of the effect of wind on landforms like dunes, arid landscapes.
* Hamilton’s rule * Principle in evolutionary biology for spread of altruistic genes.
* Kolmogorov complexity * Concept in algorithmic information theory about compressibility of data.
* Amortized analysis * Method of analyzing algorithms over sequence of operations.
* Post correspondence problem * Classic undecidable problem in theoretical computer science.
* Quipu * Ancient Incan device for recording information using knots.
* Geometric algebra * Algebraic system unifying vectors, complex numbers, quaternions.
* Demographics of Bhutan * Data about population of Bhutan.
* P versus NP problem * Famous open problem about complexity classes of algorithms.
* Szilard engine * Hypothetical thermodynamic heat engine.
* Dialetheism * Philosophy view that some contradictions are true.
* Carleman’s theorem * Result about approximating analytic functions.
* Surreal numbers * Number system extending reals to infinitesimals.
* Superpermutation * String containing all permutations of a set as subsequences.
– Bioinformatics – analysis of biological data using computing/programming
– Computational chemistry – using computational methods to study chemical systems
– Dynamical systems – studying complex systems that evolve over time
– Automata theory – abstract computational devices/state machines
– Computational finance – using computational models for trading, risk, etc.
– Information theory – quantifying information, entropy, compression
– Computational biology – using computational methods to model biological systems
– Numerical analysis – study of algorithms for continuous math/physics problems
– Computational social science – using computational methods to study social phenomena
– Formal methods – mathematically rigorous techniques for software/hardware verification
– Computational photography – digital image processing techniques
– Computational learning theory – machine learning frameworks and guarantees
– Quantum computing – using quantum systems for computation
– Decision theory – modeling optimal decisions mathematically
– Computational semantics – applying logic/math to study meaning
– Biosemiotics – signs, symbols, meaning in biological systems
– Systems biology – computational models of complex biological systems
– Psychometrics – theory and methods for psychological measurement
– Computational linguistics – applying computer science to study language