Creating a list from the most open system to the most closed system can be somewhat challenging because the concepts of “open” and “closed” can vary depending on the field of study. However, here’s a rough attempt that leans towards general interpretability:
1. Quantum System: These are arguably the most “open” systems we can consider, given the inherent uncertainty and probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics. It’s hard to get more open than a system that might be in multiple states at once until observed.
2. Ecological System: This includes various biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) elements interacting in a complex web. Changes can ripple through the system in unexpected ways due to these complex interdependencies.
3. Dynamic System: These are systems that change over time based on a set of defined rules or equations. Their state is constantly evolving in response to their initial conditions and parameters.
4. Complex System: A system composed of interconnected parts that as a whole exhibit one or more properties not obvious from the properties of the individual parts.
5. Contextual System (Open System): A system that interacts freely with its environment, receiving inputs and producing outputs. It can adapt and evolve based on the context and feedback from the environment.
6. Social System: While these systems have many interactions and much complexity, they also have norms, structures, and institutions that can limit their openness.
7. Mechanical System: While mechanical systems (like a car engine) interact with their environment, they are mostly closed, with limited paths for energy and matter. Their behaviors are highly predictable and governed by physical laws.
8. Electrical Circuit (Closed System): Electric circuits are fairly closed systems, with electricity following a determined path. However, they do interact with their environment in limited ways, such as through heat dissipation.
9. Isolated Thermodynamic System: In theory, this type of system has no interactions with its surroundings. It doesn’t exchange matter or energy with the environment.
Idealized Mathematical System: At the far end of “closed” systems might be certain mathematical systems, which are totally abstracted from any environment. Think of a perfect sphere or frictionless plane in physics: they are useful models, but don’t truly exist in the real world.
Again, these categorizations can change based on how one defines and perceives “openness” and “closedness.” This list aims to represent a wide spectrum, but is certainly not exhaustive.