Gestalt – Rhetoric – Giorgio Baruchello

Name Definition Type I II III IV V VI
Antilogy A contradiction either in terms or ideas, e.g. “we will bomb them all 1 n p
for the sake of peace and human rights”
Antimetabole, Repetition of words in successive clauses in reverse grammatical 2 p p p
Commutatio order: “we love a deal and deal in love”
Antimetathesis Inversion of the members of an antithesis 2-Jan p
Antiphrasis, Dictio Irony of one word, through patent contradiction, 1 n
contrarium e.g. “here’s the giant!” (about a very short person)
Antiprosopopeia, The representation of persons as inanimate objects, 1 p
Antipersonification e.g. “that mountain walked in and terrified us all”
Antiptosis, Casus pro An enallage substituting one grammatical case for another, 2-Jan p
casu e.g. “little wee me did it”, or “me es fecit” (instead of “mihi”)
Antirrhesis Rejecting reprehensively the opinion or authority of someone, 1 p
e.g. “Marxism is an obsolete, subversive doctrine!”
Antisagoge Using hypotheses to illustrate antithetical alternative consequences, 1 p
e.g. “if we do it we live, if not we die”
Antistasis, Refractio The repetition of a word in a contrary sense, e.g. Benjamin Franklin’s 2 p p
“Your argument is sound, all sound”
Antisthecon, Littera pro Substitution of one sound, syllable, or letter for another within 2 n p
littera a word, e.g. puns
Antithesis, Contrarium Juxtaposition of contrasting ideas or words in parallel structure, 1 p
e.g. “it’s his right, but it feels so wrong”
Antitheton, A proof or composition constructed of contraries, 1 p
Compositium ex e.g. “it may start well, but there is no glory in the end”
Antonomasia, Substituting a descriptive phrase for a proper name, 1 p
Pronominatio e.g. “the man without the eye is Israel’s new president”
Apagoresis A statement designed to inhibit someone from doing something, 1 p
e.g. “don’t you dare move an inch away!”
Aphaeresis, Ablatio The omission of a syllable or letter at the beginning of a word 2 n
“’mory” instead of “armory”
Aphorismus Calling into question the proper use of a word, 1 n
e.g. “I am an MIT economist, who has just lost all her money”
Apocarteresis Casting of all hope away from one thing and placing it on another 1 p
source altogether
Apocope, Abcisio Omitting a letter or syllable at the end of a word, e.g. “oft” instead of 2 n
Apodioxis, Rejectio Rejecting of someone or something, such as the adversary’s 1 p
argument, as bad
Apodixis Proving a statement by referring to common knowledge or general 1 p
Apologue Presenting proofs through comparisons made in form of a fable that 1 p p
simplifies the matter being considered
Apophasis, Expeditio The rejection of several reasons and affirming a single one, 1 p
considered most valid
Apoplanesis Promising to address the issue but effectively dodging it through 1 n
a digression
Aporia, Addubitatio Deliberating with oneself or the audience as though in doubt over 1 n
some matter
Aposiopesis, Praecisio Breaking off suddenly, usually to portray being overcome with 1 n
emotion, e.g. “Alas! I cannot continue!”
Apostrophe, Aversio Turning one’s speech from one audience to another, e.g. “and you, 1 n
history’s wisdom, what can you teach us today?”
Ara, Execracio Cursing or expressing detest towards a person or thing 1 p
Aschematiston, The use of plain, unadorned or unornamented language 1 p
Asphalia Offering oneself as a guarantee, “they may falter, but I am ready to 1 p
face the enemy and death, if needed”
Assonance Repeating similar vowel sounds, preceded and followed by different 2 p p
consonants, in the stressed syllables of adjacent words,
e.g. “I wanna try whatever gonna take to gotta do it”
Assumption The introduction of a different point to be considered, 1 n
e.g. “though now consider the fate he suffered”
Asteismus, Facetia Throwing back a term used by the first speaker with an unexpected 2 n p
twist, e.g. “yes, vain, glory it is yours to attain”
Astrothesia A vivid description of stars 1 p
Asyndeton, Dissolutio The omission of conjunctions between clauses, resulting in force 2 p
or hurried rhythm, e.g. “veni, vidi, vici”
Auxesis, Incrementio Arranging words or clauses in a sequence of increasing force 1 p p
Name Definition Type I II III IV V VI
Barbarism The use of nonstandard or foreign speech 2-Jan n
Battologia Overbearing, pointless repetition, e.g. “psychology is the scientific 2 p
science of the mind by scientific means”
Bdelygmia, Abominatio Expressing vocal hatred and abhorrence of a person, word, or deed, 1 p
e.g. “what a horrible person!”
Benedictio A blessing, e.g. “God bless Iceland” 1 p
Bomphiologia, Self-aggrandising exaggeration, e.g. “I am the Jesus Christ of politics” 1 p n
Verborum bombus
Brachylogia, Articulus The absence of conjunctions between single words, e.g. “Observe, 2 p
learn, reflect, try, endure, fight, win”
Cacemphaton, An expression that is deliberately foul or ill-sounding, e.g. “this play 2-Jan p
Turpiloquum is shit compared to the rest”
Cacosyntheton, Male The unpleasing order of words, e.g. “now though the fate consider 2 n
collocutum that he suffered”
Cacozelia Use of bad taste to make the facts appear worse or disgust the 1 p
auditors, e.g. “her putrid words you heard”
Catachresis, Abusio The use of a word in a context that differs from its proper one, 1 p
e.g. “the table’s legs”
Catacosmesis, Ordo Ordering words from greatest to least in dignity, or in correct order 1 p p
of time, e.g. “breakfast, lunch, dinner”
Cataphasis, Affirmatio A paralipsis in which one explicitly affirms the negative qualities 1 n p
that one then passes over
Cataplexis Threatening or prophesying payback for ill doing, e.g. “God shall 1 p
punish those that betray their partner”
Categoria, Accusatio Breaking open the secret wickedness of one’s adversary before her 1 p
Characterismus The description of a person’s character 1 p
Charientismus, Mollifying harsh words by answering them with a smooth and 1 n
Graciosa nugutio appeasing mock
Chiasmus Repetition of ideas or grammatical structures in inverted order, 2-Jan p
e.g. “trust he deserves to merit our faith”
Chorographia The description of a particular nation 1 p
Chreia Employing a relevant anecdote which relates a saying or deed of 1 p
someone well known
Chronographia Vivid representation of a certain historical or recurring time 1 p
(e.g. the seasons of the year)
Circumlocution Talking around something by supplying a longer alternative 1 p
Climax, Gradatio The arrangement of words, phrases, or clauses in an order of 1 p p
increasing importance
Coenotes Repetition of two different phrases: one at the beginning 2 p p
and the other at the end of successive paragraphs.
Colon, Membrum Completing a sentence with a second clause, e.g. “he loves her truly, 1 p p
since the first moment they met”
Communicatio To include one’s audience overtly in a discourse, e.g. “now, you all 1 n
know that I have never lied to you”
Comprobatio Approving and commending a virtue, e.g. “courage is what our 1 p
people need most of all”
Conceit An extended metaphor exploring the metaphoric possibilities in the 1 p
qualities associated with a subject
Conduplicatio Repetition of words in adjacent phrases or clauses, e.g. “to end this 2 p p
war, we must end her wicked rule”
Congeries Piling up words of differing meaning but leading all to a similar 1 p p
emotional effect
Consonance The repetition of consonants in words stressed in the same place but 2 p p
whose vowels differ
Contempt, An expression of contempt 1 p
Correctio The amending of a term or phrase just employed, e.g. “love is 1 n p
madness, namely a sickness of the soul”
Deesis, Obsecratio The vehement expression of desire, e.g. “I want to see our nation 1 p
united, strong and respected!”
Dehortatio Deliberate dissuasion, e.g. “you shouldn’t try, you don’t have the 1 p
right physique”
Dendrographia Vivid description of a tree 1 p
Deprecatio A heartfelt prayer for the removal of some evil, e.g. “libera nos a 1 p
malo, Domine!”
Descriptio An exposition of the consequences of an act, e.g. “if she shops any 1 p
more, her children will starve to death”
Name Definition Type I II III IV V VI
Diacope Repetition of a word with one or more between, e.g. “Senseless! 2 p p
What a waste! Senseless!”
Diaeresis, Partitio Dividing one syllable into two, especially contiguous vowels, e.g. “it 2-Jan p p
happened in medi-eval times”
Dialogismus Speaking as someone else, e.g. “’I thought it was a bit of innocent 1 n
fun’ she said to him, but it was not”
Dialysis, Divisio Spelling out alternatives or either-or arguments to conclude, e.g. “To 1 p p
avoid imbalance, either pull here or push there”
Dianoea, Subjectio The use of lively questions and answers, e.g. “Whyme? Because I am 1 p
honest! Why now? For you are too!”
Diaphora Repetition of a common name so as to perform two logical 2 p p
functions, e.g. “boys will be boys”
Diaskeue Graphic description of circumstances to arouse emotions, e.g. “her 1 p
peeling skin was covered with pus and red sores”
Diastole, Ectasis To lengthen a vowel or syllable beyond its typical length, e.g. end 2 p n
couplet “hit him hard, that great bastard!”
Diasyrmus, Irrisio Rejecting arguments via ridiculous comparison, e.g. “Smith’s 1 p
invisible hand is a child’s imaginary friend”
Diazeugma, Disjunctio The figure whereby a single subject governs more verbs or verbal 1 p
constructions, e.g. “he came, saw, won”
Dicaeologia Admitting what’s charged against one, but excusing it by necessity, 1 p
e.g. “he did it, but couldn’t avoid it”
Digression, Excursus A departure from logical progression in a speech 1 n
Dilemma Offering to an opponent a choice between two equally unfavourable 1 p
alternatives, e.g. “pain or ridicule?
Dirimens copulatio Balancing one statement with a contrary/qualifying statement, e.g. 1 p
“love, though thought through by age”
Distinctio Eliminating ambiguity surrounding a word by explicitly specifying 1 n p
each of its distinct meanings
Distributio Assigning roles among, or specifying the duties of, a list of people 1 p
Ecphonesis, Exclamatio Emotional exclamation, e.g. “For goodness’ sake!” 1 p
Ecphrasis Literary description of a work of art 1 p
Ecthlipsis, Elisio The omission or elision of letters or syllables for the sake of poetical 1 n
Effictio, Blazon A verbal depiction of someone’s body 1 p
Egersis, Excitatio To excite an audience, especially out of a stupor or boredom 1 n
Elenchus A logical refutation or cross-examination (as in Socrates’ irony or 1 p p
pars destruens)
Elimination, Expeditio After enumerating all possibilities by which something could have 1 p
occurred, all but one are eliminated
Ellipsis, Defectus Omission of a word or short phrase easily understood in context 1 n
Emphasis Giving prominence to a quality or trait by conceiving it as 1 p
constituting the very substance in which it inheres
Enallage The substitution of grammatically different but semantically 1 p
equivalent constructions
Enantiosis, Contentio Using opposing or contrary descriptions together, typically in a 1 p
somewhat paradoxical manner
Enargia, Descriptio, Generic name for a group of figures aiming at vivid, lively 2-Jan p
Representatio description
Encomium Praising a person or thing, on a smaller scale than an entire speech 1 p
Energia A general term referring to the “energy” or vigor of an expression 2-Jan p
Enigma, Sermo Obscuring one’s meaning by presenting it within a riddle or by 1 n
obscurus means that challenge the reader or hearer
Ennoia, Invitio The purposeful holding back of information that nevertheless hints 1 n n
at what is meant
Enthymeme, Conclusio Truncated syllogisms typical of ordinary discourse, e.g. “trust him 1 n
not, for he is a pagan”
Epanalepsis, Resumptio Repetition at the end of a line/phrase/clause of the words occurring 2 p p
at the beginning, e.g. “a lie begets a lie”
Epanodos, Reditus as Repeating the main proofs or themes in the course of one’ speech 1 p p
propositum and/or providing additional detail
Epanorthosis, Correctio Amending a first thought by making it stronger or more vehement, 1 n p
e.g. “I’m so hungry today! I could eat you alive!”
Epenthesis, Interpositio The addition of a letter, sound, or syllable to the middle of a word, 2 p p
e.g. “cursorary” in lieu of “cursory”
Epergesis, Appositio Interposing an apposition, often in order to clarify what has just 1 n
been stated
Epexegesis Interpreting what one has just said, e.g. “it is the invisible brain, i.e. 1 p
the irrationality of deregulated markets”
Name Definition Type I II III IV V VI
Epicrisis, Adjudicatio Quoting a relevant passage to comment upon it 1 p
Epilogus, Conclusio Providing an inference of what is likely to follow, e.g. “as shown in 1 p p
detail later on, these events are likely to bode well”
Epimone, Commoratio Persistent repetition of the same plea in much the same words, 1 p p
“Save him, bring him back, rescue him!”
Epiphonema, An epigrammatic summary which gathers into a pithy sentence 1 p p
Acclamatio what has preceded
Epiplexis, Increpacio Asking questions in order to chide, to express grief, or to inveigh, e.g. 1 n
“Why am I not dead?”
Epistrophe, Conversio Ending a series of lines, phrases, clauses, or sentences with the same 2 p p
word or words
Episynaloephe, Blending two syllables together into one, the opposite of diaeresis 2 p
Epitasis The addition of a concluding sentence that merely emphasises what 1 p
has already been stated
Epitheton, Appositio Addition of an adjacent, coordinate, explanatory or descriptive 1 p
element, “John Locke, known liberal thinker”
Epitrochasmus, To touch rapidly on one point and then another, e.g. “He loved 1 p
Percursio Spain, she cheated her clients, we played snooker”
Epitrope Turning things over to one’s hearers so as to suggest a proof of 1 n
something without having to state it
Epizeugma, Adjunctio Placing the verb that holds together the entire sentence either at the 1 p
very beginning or the very ending of that sentence, so as to
emphasise it, e.g. “Bought are by Wall Street all congressmen, left
and right”
Epizeuxis, Iteratio Repetition of words with no others between, for vehemence or 2 p p
emphasis, e.g. “faith, faith alone will save us”
Ethopoeia, Moralis The description and portrayal of a character 1 p
Eucharistia Giving thanks for a benefit received 1 p
Euche, Promissio A vow to keep a promise 1 p
Eulogia Pronouncing a blessing for the goodness in a person 1 p
Euphemism Substituting a more favourable for a pejorative or socially delicate 1 p
term, e.g. “soulless cocoon” for “corpse”
Eustathia Promising constancy in purpose and affection 1 p
Eutrepismus, Ordinatio Numbering and ordering the parts under consideration, e.g. “First 1 p
we open this, secondly that, third the eye”
Example, Paradigma Amplifying a point by providing a relevant, true or feigned example 1 p
Exergasia, Expolitio Repetition of the same idea, changing either its words, its delivery, 1 p
or the general treatment it is given
Geographia Vivid representation of the earth 1 p
Graecismus Using Greek words, examples, or grammatical structures, so as to 1 n
show superior knowledge
Hendiadys, Endiadis Expressing a single idea by two nouns instead of a noun and its 1 p
qualifier, “the distinction and figure of him”
Heterogenium Avoiding an issue by changing the subject to something different 1 n
Homeosis Beautifying, enforcing and enlarging language through comparison 1 p
by icons, parabolas or paradigms
Homiologia, Sermo Inane repetition, e.g. “market forces unleash the market magic of 2-Jan p p
ubique sui similis market rewards and market miracles”
Homoioptoton, The repetition of similar case endings in adjacent words or in words 2 p p p
Similiter cadens in parallel position
Homoioteleuton, Similarity of endings of adjacent or parallel words 2 p p p
Similiter desinens
Horismus, Definitio Providing a clear, brief definition, e.g. “Truth is opinion supported by 1 p
Hydrographia Vivid description of water 1 p
Hypallage, Submutatio Shifting the application of words, e.g. “The eye of man hath not 1 p
heard, the ear of man hath not seen”
Hyperbaton, Adding a word or thought to a sentence that is semantically 1 p p
Transgressio complete, thus emphasising the addition
Hyperbole, Superlatio Rhetorical exaggeration, e.g. “you never listen to me!” 1 p p
Hypozeugma Placing last in a construction with several words or phrases of equal 1 p
value the word(s) they all depend on
Hypozeuxis Every clause has its own verb: the opposite of zeugma 1 p
Hysterologia, Interposing a phrase between a preposition and its object, often a 1 n
Prepostera loquutio vice
Hysteron proteron, Disorder of time or logical sequence, e.g. “Go to bed and brush your 1 n
Praeposteratio teeth”
Icon Painting, or comparing to another’s, the likeness of a person 1 p p
Name Definition Type I II III IV V VI
Inopinatum The expression of one’s inability to believe or conceive of 1 p
something, e.g. “It is unthinkable that…”
Insinuatio Securing the audience’s good will within the exordium with 1 p
statements playing into their prejudice and expectations
Inter se pugnantia Using direct address to reprove someone before an audience, 1 p p
e.g. “You the well-paid expert did not see it!”
Intimation Hinting at a meaning but not stating it explicitly, e.g. “the alleged 1 n
experts of our government state that ”…
Irony, Dissimulatio Speaking in such a way as to imply the contrary of what one says 1 n
Isocolon A series of similarly structured elements having the same length, 2-Jan p p
e.g. “out of jail, have a meal, come to sail”
Litotes, Diminutio Deliberate understatement, especially when mirroring a thought 1 n
by denying its opposite
Macrologia, Sedulitas Long-windedness 1 n n
Martyria, Testatio Confirming something by referring to one’s own experience 1 p p
Maxim, Proverb, Short, pithy sayings or traditional expressions of wisdom consistent 1 p p
Gnome, Adagium with the point made
Medela When you can’t deny or defend friends’ faults and seek to heal them 1 p
with good words
Mempsis Expressing complaint and seeking help 1 p
Merismus, Distributio The dividing of a whole into its parts 1 p
Mesarchia The repetition of the same word or words at the beginning and 2 p p
middle of successive sentences
Mesodiplosis, Repetition of the same word or words in the middle of successive 2 p p
Mesophonia sentences
Mesozeugma, A zeugma in which one places a common verb for many subjects in 1 p
Conjunctio the middle of a construction
Metabasis, Transitio A transitional statement in which one explains what has been 1 p p
discussed until then and what will be said next
Metalepsis, Reference to something by means of another thing that is indirectly 1 p
Transumptio related to it, e.g. “blazing love”
Metallage, Materialis A word or phrase is treated as an object within another expression, 1 n
e.g. “they say ‘reform’ but mean ‘poverty’ by it”
Metaphor, Translatio A comparison made by referring to one thing as another, “King 1 p
Richard is a lion”
Metastasis, Denying and turning back on your adversaries arguments used 1 p
Transmotionem against you
Metathesis, The transposition of letters within a word, e.g. “theatre” as “theater” 2 p p
Metonymy, Hypallage, Reference to something or someone by naming one of its attributes, 1 n p
Denominatio e.g. “the pen is mightier than the sword”
Mimesis, Imitatio The imitation of another’s gestures, pronunciation, or utterance 2-Jan p
Mycterismus, A mock given with an accompanying gesture, such as a scornful 1 p
Subsannatio countenance
Noema An obscure and subtle speech 1 n
Oenismus, Optatio Expressing a wish, often ardently 1 p
Ominatio A prophecy of evil 1 p
Onedismus, Exprobatio Reproaching someone for being impious or ungrateful 1 p
Onomatopoeia, Using or inventing a word whose sound imitates that which it 2 p
Nominatio names, e.g. “buzzing bees”
Orcos Swearing that a statement is true 1 p
Oxymoron A compressed paradox, e.g. “pious orgy” 1 p p
Paenismus Expressing joy for blessings obtained or an evil avoided 1 p
Parabola, Parabole Drawing of a parallel between two essentially dissimilar things, 1 p
especially with a moral or didactic purpose
Paradiastole Referring to a vice as a virtue, e.g. “greed is good” 1 p
Paradiegesis An introductory narrative used to open a speech 1 p
Paradox A statement that is self-contradictory on the surface, 1 p
yet seems to evoke a truth nonetheless, e.g. “love is pain”
Paraenesis, Admonitio A warning of impending evil, e.g. “Beware the drums of war! Wars 1 p
bring only death and despair!”
Paragoge, The addition of a letter or syllable to the end of a word, 2 p
Preassumpcio e.g. “fabulouso”
Paralipsis, Praeteritio Stating and drawing attention to something in the very act 1 n
of pretending to pass it over
Parallelism Similarity of structure in a pair or series of related ideas, words, 2-Jan p
phrases, or clauses
Paramythia, Consolatio An expression of consolation and encouragement 1 p
Name Definition Type I II III IV V VI
Paregmenon The repetition of a word or its cognates in a short sentence, e.g. 2 p p
“Social-democracy dies for the greed of the greedy”
Parelcon The use of redundant or superfluous terms, e.g. “the damaging blow 2 p p
caused much damage to his jaw”
Parembole An interruption whose matter has a connection to the sentence 1 p n
Parenthesis, An interruption whose matter has not a connection to the sentence 1 n
Interpositio subject
Pareuresis, Excusatio To put forward a convincing excuse 1 p
Paroemion Alliteration taken to an extreme where nearly every word in a 2 p p
sentence begins with the same consonant
Paromoiosis Parallelism of sound between the words of adjacent clauses whose 2 p
lengths are equal or almost equal
Paromologia, Concessio Admitting a weaker point in order to make a stronger one, “I have 1 p
no PhD, but the experiment is irrefutable”
Paronomasia, Allusio Using words that sound alike but that differ in meaning, e.g. puns 2 p
Parrhesia, Licentia Either to speak candidly or to ask forgiveness for so speaking 1 p
Pathopoeia, Exuscitatio Stirring others by one’s own vehement feeling 1 p
Perclusio A threat against someone, or something 1 p
Period, Circumductum Whole periodic sentence characterised by the suspension of the 1 n
completion of sense until its end (cf. German & Latin)
Periphrasis The substitution of a descriptive word or phrase for a proper name 1 p
or, conversely, the use of a proper name as a shorthand to stand for
qualities associated with it, e.g. “he is a Borgia in marketing
Peristasis, A description of attendant circumstances 1 p
Philophronesis The pacification of an adversary by use of mild speech or promises 1 p
Pleonasm, Use of more words in a sentence than is necessary semantically, 1 p n
Superabundantia typically a vice
Ploce, Conduplicatio General term for the repetition of a single word for rhetorical 2 p
emphasis, e.g. “public banks mean wealth for the public”
Polyptoton, Using a cognate of another word in close proximity, e.g. “the 1 p p
Adnominatio courageous priest is brave in uniting zeal and humility”
Polysindeton, Acervatio Employing many conjunctions between clauses, often slowing the 2 p p
… …… …tempo or rhythm, i.e. “and and and and ”
Pragmatographia The description of an action 1 p
Procatalepsis, Refuting anticipated objections 1 p p
Proclees Challenging one’s adversary 1 p
Prodiorthosis A statement intended to prepare one’s audience for something 1 p p
shocking or offensive that will follow
Proechtesis, Expositio When, in conclusion of a series of observations, a justifying reason is 1 p p
Prolepsis, Anticipation Speaking of something future as already done or existing, e.g. “in 1 p
Paradise, I alternate rest and music”
Prosapodosis Providing a reason for each division of a statement in parallel 1 p
Proslepsis, Paralipsis taken to its extreme, i.e. offering details of something in 1 p
Circumductio the very act of pretending to pass it over
Prosopographia Vivid description of someone’s face 1 p
Prosopopeia, Personification, e.g. “the Market tells governments what to do, not 1 p
Personification the voters”
Protherapeia Preparing one’s audience for what one is about to say through 1 p
conciliating words
Prothesis The addition of a letter or syllable to the beginning of a word, “A 2 p
much we ate”
Protrope, Adhortatio A call to action, often by using threats or promises 1 p
Prozeugma,Praeiunctio A series of clauses in which the verb employed in the first is ellided 1 n
and thus implied in the others
Pysma, Quaesitio The asking of multiple questions one after another 1 p
Ratiocinatio Reasoning by asking questions at regular intervals 1 p
Repetitio Repeating the same word variously throughout a sentence or 2 p p
Repotia The repetition of a phrase in the same discourse with differences in 2 p n
style, diction, tone, etc.
Restrictio Making an exception to a previously made statement, e.g. “seeking 1 p
profit is fine, except when it is the sole aim of man”
Name Definition Type I II III IV V VI
Rhetorical question, To affirm or deny a point strongly by asking it as a question, 1 n p
Erotema i.e. a standard rhetorical question
Sarcasm, Amara irrisio Use of mockery, verbal taunts, or bitter jokes, e.g. “he is so 1 p
religious, so pious, so devoted, that he worships money”
Scesis onomaton A series of successive, synonymous expressions, e.g. “we were 1 p p
overwhelmed by their force, their power, their strength”
Schematismus Concealing a meaning by using figurative language, e.g. “the great 1 n
frog of Portugal shall leap into the forest and thrive”
Sermocinatio, Dialogue Speaking dramatically in the first person for someone else, using 1 p
appropriate language for that person
Simile, Similitudo An explicit comparison using “like” or “as” 1 p
Skotison Purposeful obscurity 2-Jan n
Solecism An element of speech or writing that is bltatantly incorrect 2-Jan n
grammatically or otherwise
Soraismus, Cumulatio To mingle different languages affectedly to show erudition, 2 n
though often a vice
Sorites A chain of enthymemes 1 p
Syllepsis, Conglutinata A single word governs two or more others and has different 1 p n
conceptio meanings, e.g. “holding hands and breath”
Syllogismus The use of a remark or an image which calls upon the audience 1 n p
to draw an obvious yet unstated conclusion
Symperasma, A conclusion that includes a brief summary of the foregoing 1 p
Symploce, Circulo The combination of anaphora and epistrophe 2 p p
Synaeresis When two syllables are contracted into one, e.g. “New Orleans” 2 n p
pronounced “Nawlins”
Synaloepha, Deletio Omitting one of two vowels occurring at the end of one word and 2 n p
the beginning of another, e.g. “th’eternal”
Synchysis, Confusio The confused arrangement of words in a sentence, usually a vice 1 n
Syncope, Consicio Cutting letters or syllables from the middle of a word, e.g. “defin’ly” 2 n
instead of “definitely”
Syncrisis Comparison and contrast in parallel clauses, e.g. “we praise justice; 1 p
they decry the penalty”
Synecdoche, Intellectio A whole is represented by naming one of its parts or vice versa, e.g. 1 n p
“the police came to my door”
Synoeciosis, A coupling of contraries yet not contrasted, e.g. “the day’s light 1 p
Contrapositum excites us, the night’s darkness inspires us”
Synonymia, Nominis In general, the use of several synonyms together to amplify 1 p
communio or explain a given subject or term
Synthesis, Compositio An apt arrangement of a composition regarding the sounds 2 p
of adjoining syllables and words
Syntheton, Combinatio When by convention two words are joined by a conjunction 1 p
for emphasis, e.g. “bride and groom”
Systole, Contractio To make short a naturally long vowel, e.g. end couplet “live 2 p n
for the thrill, try this new reel”
Systrophe The listing of qualities or descriptions of someone or something, 1 p
without providing an explicit definition
Tapinosis, Humiliatio Giving X a name that diminishes it in importance, e.g. emperor 1 n
Caligula as “little boots”
Tasis, Extensio Sustaining the pronunciation of a word or phrase because of its 2 p
pleasant sound, e.g. “doctor love”
Tautologia, Inutilis The unnecessary repetition of the same idea in different words 1 p
repetitio eiusdem
Thaumasmus Tomarvel at something rather than to state it in amatter of fact way 1 p
Tmesis, Dissectio Interjecting a word or phrase between syllables or parts of a word, 2 n
e.g. “where love ever may lead us”
Topographia Description of a place 1 p
Topothesia The description of an imaginary place 1 p
Tricolon Three parallel equivalent elements in a concise series, e.g. “taste, 2 p p p
trust, force e that’s a gentleman in a nutshell”

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