For example, monism might be similar to the concept of a single, unified whole in mathematics, like the number 1 or a point in a geometric space. Dualism, on the other hand, might be similar to the concept of two distinct, separate entities, like the number 2 or a pair of points in a geometric space. Reductionism might be similar to the concept of breaking something down into its component parts, like the process of decomposition in linear algebra or the concept of factorization in algebra.

Essentialism might be similar to the concept of inherent, essential properties in mathematics, like the characteristic polynomial of a matrix or the defining equation of a geometric shape. Absolutism might be similar to the concept of universal truths or laws in mathematics, like the axioms of a mathematical system or the laws of logic. And objectivism might be similar to the concept of objective truth or reality in mathematics, like the concept of a proof or the concept of logical necessity.

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