In the USA they teach what they call Critical Thinking and/or Critical Reasoning Skills.
Philosophy in some form is already included in the curriculum from Kindergarten on up.
Children are natural Philosophers. Ever have a conversation with a four year old?
Some say they’re natural Scientists, but really, they’re both natural Philosophers *and* natural Scientists.
School tries to systemize it. Tries anyway. Succeeds? Eh.
One of the flaws of schools is the way they do “building blocks”.
School is way too slow in some areas, too fast in others.
Future? Self-initiated learning, many from home, as there will necessarily be an increase of one or more parents or caregivers living at home full-time, either to support their own business (because the amount of large/medium businesses providing employment will decrease, so if you don’t get that job at Walmart, you won’t have a competing store or equivalent other type of business to go to), or to be supported by your local/state/federal/world government.
There will be sets of ladders they have to progress through.
There may be some community learning centers with mentors available.
Employable skillsets will be robot maintenance.