Embodied Cognition Lecture by George Lakoff

Motion, Source, Path, Goal.

Motion, Source, Path, Goal.

that okay I’m true welcome 12
berkeley a this is George Lakoff
I’m at theme made in that project that
the International Computer Science
Institute at the University
of California at Berkeley I and I’d like
to greet
all the folks in Serie A well at the
conference I wish I could be there
on but the you know I’m prevented for
reasons beyond my control so what I want
to do is present
are a brief overview
with some examples a book in progress
with three Ryan called how brains
think and the basic idea is this
I we wanna start with an outline here
I’ll up old and new there is a reason
that is there is a reason from the 17th
the old ones and 21st century theories a
go onto are embodied cognition
go through the early examples from the
nineteen seventies and how we would
explain them today
on menlo through and in the popcorn so
talk a little bit about neural circuitry
for doing that then go through
association circuitry which links
to other forms of embodiment that is
embodiment in language in gesture
a and so on all link to embodiment of
then I’ll I wanna go to the issue
love how abstract concepts are embodied
how compelling the getting body
and the claim is embodied by a metaphor
and then arm me
finally an explanation I love embodied
technician experiments which had become
popular around the world so with that
let’s start the Ontario reason %uh
started around 1650 e
in the era Descartes it’s still talk
today and is a new account to return
from europe admission cognitive
neuroscience experimental Cobb embodied
cognition and computational neuroscience
all put together combined in a field
governor of cognition the Oldbury
goes like this: this sums that brought
his conscious they court said I think
therefore I am assuming that
but was conscious I it turns out that
not exactly right we’ll get to that in a
minute the
old various on that but was abstract
that it was in physical
de klerk reason that if thought were
physical the laws of physics
I would up constrain how you could think
and that is physical as well see and
it is constrained I we all do so that
emotion got in the way every sin
and sometimes it does and but it turns
out that’s
usually not the case here we’ll talk
about that
reason was assumed to be in use
mathematical logic
on they could after all was a
mathematician and the assumption is that
reason is logical with some I
normal use love a mathematical logic
whatever that might be
I the assumption for there was that
reason is literal
that it could directly fit the world
break our task if its abstract
how could it fit the world and he had a
clear answer to that
I God wouldn’t lie to us job
then those assumption that reason is
what makes us human we’re rational
animals after all
therefore its universal its part thereof
what defines humanity that we all have
the same
reason 7 Wilson idea that
ideas can be understood by anyone for
rational animals
then we should be able to understand any
idea at all
if we all have the same former reason
next busy view that words are defined by
conditions have truth in the world
then that language is cognitively
neutral since is defined by truth in the
external world
all that is very common and in fact
when I went to college that was not what
I was taught not
in terms of this list so much but
to be true the new account reason well
call real reason
is very different I’ll we think with our
we don’t have a choice that’s how it
goes some people may think that
political leaders think with other parts
at their anatomy but done
we think with their brains and so today
all photos physical it’s carried out by
neural circuitry
I mostar the usual assumptions around
ninety-eight percent
is unconscious even when you thinking
gets unconscious a then economy and is
not quite right when he says that there
system to thinking which is slow and
and doesn’t have any %uh the unconscious
this is the one thinking when you
thinking slowly and consciously
the unconscious is mostly at work and it
has to be
why because unconsciously what’s
happening in the brain is
we have no role %uh structures going in
many many different directions
are all at once I doing lots and lots of
complex work
the having to do with embodiment and we
as we will see
and %uh consciousness is linear
so consciousness being linear and kinda
slow is not able to do
what is going on in the hundreds
parallel structures in the brain
so you have no choice its mostly
the next you can only understand with
the new also between your brain
allows you to understand you can’t
understand just
anything and this a particularly
is the case in political reasoning which
I’ve written a great deal about
but it’s true in many other things as
well it’s two in the academic world
some people are still believe in
enlightenment reason can only think in
terms of that
and the 17th century view and the idea
they fit that one could think in other
ways in that one does think in other
ways mostly in touch isley
the something a lot of people even in
the academic world can’t comprehend that
don’t make sense so
I next motion turns out to be
necessary for a reason Todd Tony dimazio
showed this and the book called a court
I he looked at people who had brain
injuries and strokes
who who could not feel and
didn’t have a motion and if you if
that’s the case then like and not like
don’t mean anything
that means you cannot set goals an act
rationally the don’t know what
would be good in what will be bad with
other people would think would be good
and bad for you
though it turns out that people who have
those brain injuries
have act randomly and mess up their
and rationality therefore requires
emotion in order to set goals
now meaning on our account
the counter may give here in terms of
neural computation
and is embodied simulation that is your
constantly in similar
simulating ideas and what’s going on in
the world
with your embodied thought there’s no
single logic one of the things I studied
logic for a long time and worked on it
for a long time
if you go to read the logic journals
magicians have instructed
thousands logics which are substantively
they have different inferences different
assumptions and so on
there is no one logic I however
we do think in terms of cards in the
primitive planes metaphors and
and each of those has its own logic
different from each other
and interestingly and importantly
different then
there’s a very interesting phenomenon in
frame semantics which will get to
which is that when you negate a frame it
activates the frame
the famous example was richard nixon a
with the watergate case but up and said
I am NOT a crook
and everybody thought of him as a cross
when you argue
against an argument point by point what
that does is create support for the
argument you’re arguing against because
are activating those views the world
that you are arguing against and
therefore you are supporting the
argument you’re arguing against
that’s very important thing to know next
I’ll we’re gonna argue that abstract
concepts are embodied by a metaphor
otherwise there is no account love the
love abstract concepts how abstract
concepts get their meaning
when so for concrete concepts is wanna
via embodiment which makes sense for
physical things like jumping
or running or physical objects like
desks and chairs
but I’m it dead you know abstract
concepts have think be treated in some
other way
and we’re gonna argue that it’s by a
metaphorical circuitry
finally I we’re gonna talk about Charles
Fillmore East discussion up
word to being defined relative to frames
there is no such thing as a neutral
words all
they’re all frame dependent and
numerical constructions are based
on common embodied experiences
so given follow that what follows
felt let’s look at where embodied
cognition came from
in the nineteen seventies the early
examples and what has happened since
then in modern explanations
the first color categories
back in 1977 hardcore play gave
hey remarked upon published a remarkable
I one other things that was discovered
and the neuroscience
of color players on what any more
scientists will understand this
there no callers in the external world
they’re not there
we looked out it looks like there is
green and red and blue and so on out
but callers are created in Fourways
their reflected wave lengths from
objects but wavelengths individual
are not colors those nearby lighting
conditions which affect what you see in
terms of color
and then Liz what’s inside you their
color tones in the retina
and neural circuitry connected to those
and those
altogether create color now what’s
interesting about this is that men and
don’t have the same kinds have called
phones necessarily
I men have because colour tones are
connected and your men have
two different kinds of colour Khan said
are very close
women have 16 types of color palette
each woman that across women their 16
which can differ very considerably one
of the reasons why
I women have a larger collar vocabulary
demand if they’re going to talk to each
moreover I if you’ve ever had arguments
across gender
as to whether something was are injured
or brown or whether it’s green or blue
I what happens as you’re both right
because you can have
different color conscious giving you
guys to different experiences
caller car is check in as a concept that
has to do with
your connection to the world your
relationship with it with with your body
it’s an embodied concept
and there’s a recent discovery that
about 3 percent over men
have four kinds of color comes they have
a kind
a whole dimension of color that the rest
of us cannot even see
I suspect my wife is one of them I she’s
an artist the specializing in part
now I then the great discovery
by on a rush was a was basic level
what she pointed out was that concepts
chair or car and other basic level
concepts are defined by motor programs
to sit in a chair you drive the car like
Center and Ishtiaq perception you can
pick out a car at a distance you can
pick out a chair at a distance no
I and you have mental imagery you can
get a mental image of chairs and cars
and so on
one should go higher than that for
general notions like furniture
& vehicles you don’t have I mental
images of general
I’ll forms a furniture that are neutral
between chairs beds tables lamps and so
I or between cars planes boats trains
and so on
you don’t have mental images at that
higher-level so
least three ideas come together why
should a
why should that ever happened well we
now know why
are reno from the work at Parma in the
that this mariner on circuitry that
I the motor programs you use to
a my perception visual and auditory
perception in the bridal cortex
and therefore there’s a certain kinds a
neural circuitry that will be active
when you need to perform an action
are you see someone else perform the
same action
that is there’s a connection between
first-person and third-person perception
then you have the discovery up by Martha
fella and others
that and magic nation and action and
use the same part to the rain so what’s
happening is you have a common
for love neural circuitry that links
wished all perception and motor programs
and mental imagery
all and one up a ya
part in the brain harbury’s part to the
brain linked together
%ah and that’s what gives rise to basic
level concepts we have an explanation
for why they should exist
next their cognitive primitives and
are include a special structures and
image schemas
arm and this is important let’s start
the a are I first the schema structure
in general
%uh when you have a schema like um
a schema for containment where you have
a a boundary an interior and exterior
you have various semantic roles and you
have a whole structure
with various roles that are involved in
that substructures
and lots of schemas work this way all
frames work this way they have semantic
roles and so on
and all those could be explained as
Jerry feldman has pointed out
they were called fish don’t circuits for
circuits that
such that any role activates the entire
dish tall
there’s a a node a in the world ensemble
for each of those
and then the entire dish so activates
all love the
roles and that’s what a gestalt circuit
is an all ov
the on structure %uh schemers in general
works by kiss all circuits
Michelle circuits to other things as
well as we’ll see then there are X nets
I which are processing circuits and
topographic map structures
that are important now arm
the idea here with I access we’ll get
through that in a while
not is that they are are circuits that
carry out actions in the world
and topographic map structures what we
call map architectures
are combinations of topographic maps and
a computer image he miss
so the idea is this every sit with us
medical an image schema
is a single map in a map architecture
image gamers were are discovered by
Ronald lacquer
and Alan tell me back in the nineteen
and what they found was that the same
primitive structures occur in language
after language and they put together
differently in different languages those
primitive structures include things like
with us or surpass the golan trajectory
that moves and so on
they include containment they include
they include broadly things like fronts
and backs and
notions like b-side insides and all
sorts of other structures
that show up in the spatial we a
relations in the world are lacquer
a originally talked about what he called
space clamor
but is the grammar based on spatial
relations structures
and are that is a very important
it’s real and what was then argue is
that they are explained by topographic
got topographic map architectures how
each semantic role in an image came as a
single map in a map
architecture now let’s talk a little bit
about nets
a X nets and aspect straining Rinn
back and his 1997 this rotation
pointed out that in order to move
in order for the look pretty a motor
to coordinate actions the premotor
cortex is a kind of choreographer
good the Cory a it it choreographed
and then send a activation to the motor
which to simple things like at this
that and so on carry them out so if I
want to
with this up and take a drink I have to
do many things I have to
open my elbow close my hand coordinator
with my shoulder and so on
and what 3d pointed out was that you
need in the premotor cortex
a structure that does this and he
devised a structure that would carry it
and networks i has worked on on
computational models of the body I also
love the full body
now I one he’s shown is this
but you have a structure for any
act action a precondition like an
initial state I have to be close enough
to this that they could drink
is a starting action I’ve to come here
at the pick it up
have to go to hear and then I am in the
precentral state
before actually taking a drink essential
one is to take a drink
book when I have a purpose test
am I still thirsty answer yes a BP
the no I’m not thirsting
I finished the action I put it down and
so on
and then afterwards I have a consequence
I’m no longer thirsty
now actions in general have
this structure and that’s where purposes
come in
purposes have structures defined by
experts are the sort
what we discovered was when we looked at
this structure for acting and for
the neural structures we needed a moral
accounting thus what we found was that
this structure defines
what is called aspect in the languages
of the world
so an English you have a central thing
like the PLO saying I am drinking that’s
the central action about to says I’m
about to take a drink and so on I
started drinking
I have drawn is the relevant consequence
after the final state and so on
and different languages do this in
different ways
and what’s really needed wasn’t do and
you’re a computational model
love this in great detail with I
already called X that’s which are nodes
with transitions
and they model neural circuitry in the
following way:
where the no cell structure is a node
firing cell clusters are transitions
and puts our input places output output
dendrites and bottling Saxons output
links and so on
all the way out and when he found was
that you need to do this not just at the
highest level where you have general
but the two for lower-level things
because if I’m going to start to do this
I have to make sure that my arm doesn’t
go up like this that my hand doesn’t go
down like that
and that I don’t hit there and so on
that requires coordination
and what he showed was that there are
coordinating circuits that go with the
that allow that that make sure that this
is done right
and those coordinating circuits will
argue later do a great deal job
in the conceptual system now
what is a map architecture what is it
that gives you
a notions I like um
you know source Pathan goal I things
like that or containment what is in in
how do you get an interior now to an
exterior our the brain
%uh the basic idea was a suggestion back
1988 by Terry year who was then a first
year grad student
who then only followed it up there in
in his MIT Press book on
I the no prerequisites for thought
and what he I what on he pointed out
was the following idea but a map
architecture is a collection of
topographic maps
a visual field the topographic map is
a a a layer of neurons that they don’t
have to be in a layer
that preserve close this coming and and
the primary visual cortex is a
topographic map
love what’s coming out of the retina for
example the
you have other topic graphic maps and
the body in the motor cortex a mismatch
sensory cortex
and so on and topographic maps go
throughout the brain
and the arm your arms and legs and so on
they’re all over the place
now I in this map architecture there’s a
collection of maps
a triggering map connected to some other
brain region or regions
and each map is a collection of neurons
that preserves closeness
given its end but and it can be close to
so many things that could be close to
in the auditory cortex its I closeness
love I I love I I love intensity
closeness love I stuff a
you know the a but
you know thou of frequency and so on and
but you get a frequency intensity map in
the brain
out a preservation of closeness on
coming from
a topographic maps above from the inner
and so on and then the acoustic or text
is a topographic map up intensity and
frequency now up
each map is a two-dimensional layout of
neurons or nodes which I know ensembles
each map a certain internal connections
among the neurons and each map takes
input from our provides act output to
another map in the current collection
and the external connections
to the from one app to another can be
either activating or inhibiting
the specific architecture is defined by
the internal and external connections
and connections to the trigger and this
one very general idea
heat roll an image schema like source
path angle
is embodied by one map in a map
architecture so
here’s a map architecture this is the
motion schema Architektur its
as for sloppy version but I want to do
it short
%uh where it is region MTV five in the
bridal cortex as maps
that track motion a now what’s going on
here is the following
the sequential activation up nine runs
in the one is tracked
as a motion and empty and the proposed
look like this there’s a trigger Matt
which is movement
in layer 1 neurons in those are
next to one another in sequence tracing
a path the motion
one right after another over moving
object that is registered in the one
and in fact I’m if you go to Mike
singers lab at berkeley
he has shown that with monkeys if you
flashlight across
a the retina you can actually see the
activation going from one side to the
topographic map
to another I’ll so that’s that’s quite
and it’s there then and %ah the in the
hypothesized architecture
there’s the path the motion map but here
where to
which has internal self activating our
eyes it’s a live for a while
where to take activating connections
from there one
so the motion and where one will create
a line of self activating their aunt
staying alive and this will characterize
the overall path
given by the movie entity so call that
the path that
the other thing that this can these
connections do is the final word
Island tell me called fictive motion
examples like the road runs through the
where you understand a single line in
terms of motion
tracing that line then you have a source
what’s the source mapping layer 3 let’s
say thats
a self activated neurons and internal
from H&R on to all the other neurons in
the map so that the first one that
into a inhibits all the others and that
gives you a source next ago map
and wherefore what you have for neurons
that have activating connection
somewhere won the motion map
but which have threshold higher than the
activations coming in from the normal
so that as you move nothing happens
there the thresholds are too high
but when you stop you keep getting
activation for a while and that allows
you to activate
the 1 the goal part this map
so the idea here is that the
architectures for lawyers have maps
connected in this way
and you get motion source path and goal
one in each map
and that’s one way of characterizing the
embodiment to the motions game
then what about containment where you
have interior
boundary and exterior here sorry
hypothesized architecture for these
I and again a suggested originally
as a first year grad student by Terry
rehear I suppose you have layer 1
now boundaries we know for both objects
and regions are computed in v1
and we hypothesize connections for movie
one boundary to a boundary map
in the prior to low and that boundary
map is in the role sheet containing a
close curve
have locally adjacent self activated
neurons for the next to one another as
you go around and they’re so back to
rate it
gives you a boundary map rare true is a
set up so back to main neurons
where you have spreading from outside to
inside and it’s spreading have
and it starts at the outermost layer and
spreads outward and inward
I layer one has activating connections
the layer 2
so that the boundary will activate the
neurons in layer 2
and as India inhibition spreads inward
it will stop
at the activation from where one
what that will mean is you’ll get the
boundary and interior
activated in layer 2 but not the
up so that’s when that will happen there
suppose you have layer 3 that consists
up self activating the runs
receiving inhibition from where to so
what that will mean
is the interior and boundary neurons in
layer 2 will turn off the corresponding
arms and layer 3
leaving on the exterior ons that will
give you and
activated exterior mayor 3 and therefore
will give you self activated neurons
that take inhibition
from players one and a layer to the
and that will leave you with an interior
so what you have is up Lisa Madigan
roles are
boundary interior/exterior are each
embodied by one of these topographic
in the architecture now ob given
something like that that is you have two
kinds of structures you have the X nets
that are
embodied by carrying out actions in the
and allowing you to understand those
actions when you see them
are and the somali you have on
as I you know image schemers carried out
by topographic maps and structures are
hines those are embodied how did the
embodied structures
linked up to one another and the answers
Association circuitry
but this is not simple-minded
Association secretary we have just
to associations connected it’s actually
pretty complicated
if you’re going to get the structure the
full structure
up all other concepts we know and can
not only we do know
but could now and that’s very important
so the question is how do we do this the
idea here
is the following I we need to take to
what are called cascade circuits that
these things up together and now let’s
look at how that
these get formed the first basic idea
is no recruitment the so the question is
how do we learn anything at all how do
we learn a new circuit
well were born with about 100 billion
neurons about a
which give you about 9000 10000
per and that gives you about a
quadrillion connections
may be as few as happen but doing
something like that
after pruning the least use connections
in childhood
that knows happens you know connections
and leave about half a quadrillion
which is many more than I used in all
the fix circuitry in our brains
the extra connections make pirate base
rate and stay alive
but they don’t play any lasting function
wearing a functional circuit the circuit
does something involves with a repeating
activated have a network of such neural
that do the same things over and over so
that their synapses get strength and
enough to be last thing that is when a
sitter and when the synapse
since synapses active it gets strengthen
this is what is called a usage-based
area recruitment
but also a Darwinian theory which what
fits not bits what best fits one’s
experience on that
is what is learned and what remains next
in addition our recruitment there’s no
modulation which is crucial and
everything that we do with cascade
%uh neurons connect across synopsis in
the pre-snap ticknor on releases
neurotransmitters into this and that the
and then they diffuse into the synapse
and they bind and transmembrane proteins
on the dendrites
and so bodies are the postsynaptic
and they allow those proteins the change
shape in open
and they let in positive ions unusually
sodium ions
and I if not enough neurotransmitters
are released
the firing can take place that is you
can’t get
and neural firing this is what is called
a week
connection but there could be other
neurons in our ensembles
with Jackson’s that terminate and the
same syntactic fluid
when they fire they can release more
neurotransmitters into the fluid
enough to make the weak connection
strong enough for firing
this is called narrow modulation
and then on Sat modulator called gates
such gates
can also be inhibitory depending on what
kind or transmitters they admit if they
meant no transmitters
that bind to transmembrane proteins that
lead in negative ions like chlorine ions
they can have an effin and having affect
firing then there are cascade circuits
that bring all this together so we
hypothesize that their global
neural circuits that can turn
combinations up gates
in various places in the brain on are
and we call these cascades circuits
since they control the flow of
activation and inhibition
moment by moment across brain regions
cascade circuits govern inferences
made in simulations in context and we
hypothesize that
cascade circuits are bi directional they
go in both directions
with flow going by directionally for
another milliseconds
for all the inferences to be drawn but
not long enough to be consciously know
before there is a switch to the next
cascade circuit and consciousness is
important here
are in a movie you’d have I something
I’m 25 or 30 up
frames per second now in order to be
able to see it as a continuous flow
that means you know you have about 40
I maybe a little bit more up before
things become conscious
and the idea since you have this
unconscious thought within those 40
milliseconds or a little more
you have to be able to activate a
with all the structure that it needs
before it moves on to the next rupture
the next rupture the next structure
and so on now
that’s what we’re study to do this the
crucial notion is no binding I
take the word in in names and interior
location as in he is in the cafe
and the work true indicates motion with
the court
as in he walked to the corner the word
binds both concepts together with the
goal of motion
as the interior at the cafe and
he walked to the corner cafe into
defines the goal motion as interior
the source emotion as exterior now
in the brain me motion Architektur is in
a different location
it’s fixed in one part of the brain
container architecture
someplace else in another part of the
brain and you don’t know the size on
move they don’t move around the brain
you can’t put them together like that
so how are you getting into and the
answer is you need a circuit
to do it it’s called in a row binding
circuit and
and this is these things occur all over
the place
an language anytime you had two things
that are identified as being the same
you need in reminding circuit to bring
together different parts for the brain
so how do you do this how do you get
that done
%ah a binding circuit will
went too fast a binding circuit links
tuner ensembles
by directionally in two different places
so that they fire in saying
as long as the gate is firing so if you
have a gate
and connections between them and the
gate is firing
and these guys are firing by
directionally late several
into I a role in which they said they
are synchronized
and then the rest the brain can tell the
difference was the firing at the same
pace that that could well be gated so
that when the gate is not firing
this won’t happen that allows in
and true to be separate to be you
work to be be used together when you
have into and that
is what brings them together so that’s
the hypothesis about how binding
circuits work and we’re trying to work
that out
in general for all concepts that use by
and that’s going to be an interesting
job but we’ve been looking at lots and
lots of cases
and so far so good now
so are we hypothesize that binding
circuits can be learned
through experience oh these things Ryan
or recruitment and normal
no learning mechanisms which er have
been learning and
as tdpt which is up
I for spike a spike time dependent
now we also have simple no mapping
circuits a simple norm at mapping
is a gated unit directional circuit been
occurs with metonomy
within a scheme out where one private
schema stands for something else
but we need a strong arm at third base
or something like that in baseball
I’ll were the arm stands for
the third baseman which is a in the
now arm metaphor mapping
is slightly more complicated a metaphor
mapping is a structured collection of
simple gated narrow mappings
and they go from one schema mapping in
one domain as the one part of the brain
to I
other another scheme and another part of
the brain with corresponding semantic
and their the gates operate together so
that if you have a gate on
each the mapping roll to roll you have
to have them operating as one thing and
to do that
the gates at the form a gestalt circuit
so that the activation have any one of
activates the whole circuit which
activates all love them and
they’re all going to function as once as
a single metaphor mapping
now how our primary metaphors learned
what is a primary metaphor
imagine a child being held
affectionately by parent and she feels
the warm so the parents body when hell
Ross circuitry perfection in temperature
are simultaneously activated in a
child’s brain
over and over getting stronger and
stronger overtime
has the child is held affectionately the
activation spreads along existing
until the shortest path way between
and affection is found any connection
circuit is formed
now when that happens you’re going to
get have been learning
which is can beat by directional however
at this point STP that despite timing
dependent plasticity
takes over the schema that is regular
regularly fires
first has the Senate it’s an app to
strengthen in its direction
well the synapse is in the other
direction are systematically weekend
by STP let’s create asymmetry
the asymmetry we actually see in
metaphors STD the BP
also predicts successfully which scheme
is going to be source namely the ones
that fire first
and which are going to be target for the
primary metaphors
for example take this case sense the
brain is always competing temperature
but not always computing affection why
I will flow from the temperature region
leading to more regular first firing
so that is explains why it is that
affection is one
not warp his affection not the same is
true with more is up
that is verticality is always being are
registered in the brain leaving when
you’re sleeping
but quantity is not and so if you have
connections between them
you gonna have art it’s going to go from
very Caliente eat the quantity
not the reverse now however notice
what’s going on there
it doesn’t mean it only goes one way
mean to cause more strongly one way
and weekly the other so that if you have
multiple metaphors for a given concept
you going to get some activation for
each a metaphorical paths
though not enough to activate the
metaphor but you may get some activation
that will help out
be now
we hypothesize that I this is how prime
primary metaphors I learned in general
now and what we’ve been able to do so
far as look at hundreds of cases
word that prediction works which is
quite remarkable
okay onto complex metaphors
the most metaphor mappings are complex
combinations a primary metaphors
we hypothesized but these combinations
are formed by Nora bindings across the
with combinations form by cascades that
turn on the right combinations are no
binding gates
to bring these together so that’s the
general idea of complex metaphors
and lately system looks like this there
are hundreds
a primary metaphors that arise through
cases where you have
experiences that come together
activating different brain regions over
and over but they do it simultaneously
and their hundreds have such experiences
and they given overall structure to the
an overall metaphor circuitry that to
the brain
and the complex metaphors think various
have these and
bind them together because I other kinds
of experiences that you have when these
fit together
and their learned was a conceptual bland
conceptual and is formed by cascades
that activate
world bindings usually together with the
metaphor so they don’t have to have
that and that ticket and they typically
activate inhibiting gates as well the
inhibition in a bland result in cases
that don’t fit the typical frames for
metaphors take a simple example
wastebasket basketball hi for something
into the wastebasket
he there are bindings are rolled up
but they are bound to
the basket ball in the basket ball frame
the limit the wastebasket is bound to
the RAM
the basketball basket but throwing a the
paper roll is bound to the shooting at
the basket
at center that the strongest activation
goes with the wastebasket them because
that’s where you are
in context and what that does is up
it will I at a will do the following:
it will inhibit anything that is
inconsistent with the basketball frame
in the basketball
frame so for example the fact that the
basket is 10 feet tall
will be inhibited I you know people
jumping ten feet high and dumping
you know that things in there will be
are all sorts of other things will be
and that’s one of the kind of innovation
that will work and
conceptual plans what we’ve been doing
is looking at conceptual plans and
trying to work out the internal
structure them
in neural terms I to account for this in
terms of neural binding
now how r abstract concept embodied this
is a big deal
because we have abstract concepts and it
meaning is always embodied
if we get things to be meaningful in the
world through our
us our sensory motor systems how is that
possible for an abstract concept
and the answer we give this via embody
metaphor we know
that the meaning of concepts has to be
provided by the the body brain
iraq’s fine sense for concrete concepts
like physical entities and physical
actions read about abstract concepts
this is a job that has to be done there
has to be done by Noel Fielding Eurocode
you have to have an answer to the
question of how abstract concepts get
and things like that say although they
just happened to fit the world are true
condition of semantics doesn’t account
but also to add conditional semantics
want account for all the body technician
so the argument here is that they’re
done via embody metaphors
how I and and what kind of cases
the first thing to understand is that
many abstract concept
are physically realized in the brain
take morality
rally is about well-being or well-being
and that have the well-being of others
well-being is registered in the brain
via what are called
reward circuits then release hormones
that is not transmitted
that make us feel well RL they give us
well being
RL me or emotions now
emotions as Paul Ekman pointed out a
long time ago and his colleagues have
have bodley call it’s for example when
you’re angry your skin temperature rises
your blood pressure increases
visual acuity decreases your fine motor
and good control decreases
he’s a physical effects these physical
facts are registered in the brain some
at a sensory system
and they’re called somatic markers by
Antonio Damasio
was hypothesized that they are the
that what emotions are in the brain are
the SIMATIC markers
I love the a my eye what are the
I love those emotions now are
then there are purposes we saw that in X
there is a testing for fulfilling
purposes that are carried out
that is used to state you’re trying to
achieve by acting
ha thinking is an internal action
carried on physically by brain circuitry
these abstract concepts in the brain
aren’t abstract
the physical next the theory a primary
metaphor learning that we’ve seen
applies to these abstract concepts which
are physically reeled me
realized in the brain let’s take the
very first example
are up a on I
I conceptual metaphor a pointed out by
Michael ready
way back at a conference in 1977
now published in seventy nine the
conduit metaphor says that ideas are
objects language is a container for that
and communication is sending these idea
objects you put him in language
you send them to somebody else who takes
the matter the containment
and he points out over a hundred
expressions in an English for these
and here are just a few examples you
finally got through to him the meaning
is right there in the words
put your work were your thoughts into
clear language
the words are hollow and many many more
hundreds up these kinds of cases
every day now a sweeter Alan Schwartz
love got picked up this further I
switcher pointed out that there’s a
general metaphor that the mind is a body
but mental functioning as bodily
punching and that ideas are
objects are I love bottling functioning
and she pointed out before special cases
have metaphors for thinking
first thinking is moving ideas are
locations communication is leading
understanding is following and you know
understanding is seeing more perceiving
in general
ideas anything seen communication is
thinking as object manipulation ideas
objects communication is sending as we
understanding is grasping those ideas
or thinking is eating ideas are food
communication is feeding
understanding is digesting and a lot
some examples above this
I their discussed in great detail in are
the book philosophy in the flesh by
myself and Mark Johnson
where you have things like are moving is
reaching your things like reaching a
conclusion going off on a tangent
say the following may go step by step
for examples like seeing see what I mean
he has a different point of view the on
that sheds light on what’s going on here
this is a clear idea it’s a brilliant
idea that is illuminated other things
the Bulls
I you can pull the wool over someone’s
eyes someone can have
blinders on tennis manipulation
hmmm thinking is manipulating objects
you can turn it over in your mind
class ideas around give him said I the
idea take that idea from him
eating more food for thought to of fact
half-baked ideas
I do you digesting understanding is they
just think
or things like he won’t swallow that its
reach rejecting it when you want swallow
the point is that you have metaphorical
structures and multiple metaphorical
structures not just one
port systems have abstract thought and
very often
as many as a dozen or two different
different metaphors for a given abstract
%uh the place to look for this is in
philosophy in the flesh that Mark
Johnson I put out 1999
and what we did there was we went to the
central concept
but philosophers discuss namely time
events causation
thinking and knowledge the South
morality and me
and a lot we showed was that all love
have an embodied metaphor structure that
is quite elaborate
and we go through what that metaphor
structure is but we didn’t stop there
we asked one is a philosophy and Mark
Johnson is a noted philosopher who study
the history of philosophy in great
detail pointed out
that every force of about system is made
up up a collection of metaphors
that are taken as true better soon to be
when their metaphorical and what we did
the race go through the metaphors used
by the pre Socratic splayed 0
Aristotle Descartes con small theory the
anglo-american foster’s even Chomsky and
the rational actor model
as used in economics and foreign policy
in each case what we showed was that
there are detailed
systems a metaphor which were taken
literally by these philosophers
with the metaphoric on Tillman’s worked
out in great detail
by the philosophers remarkable detail
then beyond that %ah rough illness and I
and 2000 put out a book called where
mathematics comes from
and what we did was show that
mathematics is based on embodied
metaphor as well but metaphors that have
piled one on top of the other
were a when you start putting one
metaphor and top with another
what happens when you bind them together
is that you lose
the sense a metaphor mara for city
the source and target them is gonna
cancel each other out and everything
looks abstract
but what we did was break them down
layer by layer by layer
and in full details about six hundred
pages a formal detail
and what we showed was that there are
metaphorical basis of
arithmetic so that we can explain how
you could not multiply by negative
numbers if you think about
brought the means for mind to do
something minus seven times imagine that
but there’s a reason for it we show how
that works
in terms of normal cognition and we go
through set there is not just one set
their eat there are hundreds have set
their ease the job at the set there is
is to make them up and we go through
some of them
I then we go through the metaphors
behind formal logic
in general when we take the question
what is infinity
and their two kinds infinity it goes on
and on as and plane geometry
or infinity is a thing like pies and
infinite dust bowl but it’s a thing
helping to both be infinite and the
thing and we show that there’s a very
general basic metaphor for infinity
that is easy to learn it’s simple it
shows it shows up
in every branch of and mathematics for
infinity is a thing
and their special cases of that me go
through the special cases
when we go through algebra that is I
cases where you have curves that give
you Matt mathematical functions
but the metaphors are there we go
through the metaphors for continuity
for calculus for infinite has malls for
their commitment is a shiner geometry
from engineering numbers
for logarithms exponentials and we even
the great equation he to the pie I plus
one equals 0
and you say how can that be true what
could that mean
with he is an infinite de small I
how can it be raised to the to a pie you
know to the power pie
what does it mean to multiply it up I
number of times
and what does it mean to not buy that it
square root of -1 number times
and when you add one you get there are
those answers -1
and we show that in fact logarithms
exponentials an imaginary numbers
are not were dissolved ordinary trial
but cognitively their metaphorical
that explain while you can understand
this and exactly
what it means and why the truth follows
from what it means
what we did there we show that every
formula has
8 meaning coming out in the metaphors
now what about embodied cognition
experiments these are
I remarkable things up a little not
forget that
these are remarkable things and
let me try to give you a sense of them
and what explains them
because conceptual metaphors are
physical brain circuits
their activation can act as primes from
behavior think it metaphorical behavior
but Syria’s embodied metaphor explains
the results as embodied cognition
and it shows the mechanism by which
those embodied cognition experiments
for example but I miss singer and her
coworkers in 2006 that a remarkable
piece of work I what they showed was
that in physical pain
first though the bilateral anterior
insula an answer yes sir
singular are active thats relatively
but they’re also active in observing the
experience of pain in a loved one
but with a stranger the pain reaction in
the anterior insular is lower
that is basically the metaphor
psychological pain and physical pain is
physically there
in your brain for take the matter for
morality as purity
which has to do with the fact that when
you keep your food
you get a sense of well-being when you
eat rotten food who yet a sense until
and that says that morality is purity
and immorality is rotten this as in
something is rotten in the state of
Denmark now
i John Hanly inquest in 2006 the a cool
and their subjects were asked to recall
either a mall are immoral act in their
but they performed afterwards as a token
of appreciation
experimenters offered the subject a
choice between a gift to the pencil
our package up antiseptic wipes those
who are described in immoral act were
far more likely to choose the wipes
and a similar study later subjects who
either did or did not have the
opportunity to clean their hands
they were yet they were able to wash a
they were less likely cool funders for
help so that
if they could wash away they could go
wash and clean up afterwards
then they’re less likely %uh to got
wanna help
in future cases that is the global guilt
is expunged
that is washing hands expunge is killed
and I so that the subjects
who a talked about bad things they’re
done after they wash their hands on no
need to perform by helping at
explains the guilt composer experiments
%ah me affection is warm metaphor
that Williams and art in 2008 the
following take subjects
in there and a given one coffee in
or called coffee and the whole the warm
cup coffee coffee or the cold cup coffee
and then they’re told to imagine an
that you come in you never met before
what are they like and
they generally the people at the one
copy said that the
I’m in imaginary individual as a
friendly person Padawan personality and
those who had the cold coffee
were less likely to say that they said
that the be personally met were cold
people and not nice to them I another
one with affection is one
John and Marlena Delhi 2008 subjects
arrest remember a time when they were
either socially accepted or socialists
not then they told stories and so on
those with the warm memories of
acceptance then were asked if they were
all asked the judge the
temperature their own the ones with the
one and memories of acceptance judge the
room to be five degrees warmer on the
than those who remembered being called
least not came
so where you have the metaphor again
chart giving you metaphorical behavior
are or the metaphor important this heavy
and 2006 John and William quest carried
out the following experiment
they told students that a particular the
that a particular book on was important
another book wasn’t important
and then there as the judge how heavy
the book was the important book was
judged to be heavier than the
unimportant book
thanks now the top
the best one my favorite overall this is
carried out by two people I know
are Spike Lee and Norbert Schwarz up
and what they did was they showed a bi
directional affect with the
notion up though that says something
smells fishy fishy they took that
idiom and then is what’s called an image
ability and it’s based on an image
here it’s an olfactory image and
knowledge about that image
and the metaphors apply to that as we
will say are what they did was this
been they showed that the smell are fish
particularly in fish oil versus other
kinds of oil
created suspicion and that if you if
they created suspicion independently
it was easy to pick out the smell a fish
from this know about this message
officials in the snow the other oils
that cool now why
rice ago ride irrationally and as we saw
that with STP
it strengthens the mappings in one
Direction’s weakening them and the other
but less than usual strengthening
weakening can produce by directional
that is would have missed the DP but
it’s not just
all one direction or all the other now
how do you get smelling fishy related to
why would it be related to suspicion
what a suspicion suspicion
doesn’t understand the standing that
someone has acted immorally to thwart
someone else’s purposes without their
knowledge so it involves the notion of
understanding mamol action sorting
someone else’s purposes
without them knowing that’s what’s
involved now
the metaphorical cascade that links that
is given right here there are three
major parts
a madman with XP without primary
metaphors and then
special cases of them cell morality is
immorality is rotten this the
experiential basis is
in eating your food correlates with well
being rotten food with building
then you have the notion of thinking as
broadly functioning and the special
cases up
communication ascending thinking is
eating understanding is they just thing
understanding is perceiving this special
cases smelling in this case
then you have to achieving a purpose is
acquiring a desired object as we’ve seen
and as bad as in a that was a plum for
the picking
it fell through my head the job fell
through my hands and so on the getting a
desired object I got what I mean wanted
so you have that the special case here
is achieving a purpose is getting
desirable food
as in job is a plum a difficulty
is seen as is it is getting undesirable
food that’s it
difficulty and the special cases rotten
in particular in this case rotten fish
when you have
all love this structure which is there
in your brain
independent as everything else each
piece %uh this is already there
the cascades smelling fishy is requires
a cascade
that binds these together that binds
the are gaining nodes that Kate these
that’s what allows you they have
smelling fishy having to do with
up a rotten this which impedes I
that which is an immoral act that impede
something you’re trying to do
so what’s going on there is that it’s
not surprising that you get the results
that this happen this it gives it’s not
just the language here
smelling fishy it is the conceptual
and this is the Empire conceptual
structure you need
and it’s in a cascade that presumably is
not turning on very the all the various
getting notes
self blast I want to talk about linear
and linear scales are formed by a cast
day tomorrow by means that is very
7 vertical line where more is up so that
metaphor is structuring that vertical
so more is up less is down you have in
a forward motion schema that tells you
we saw what it was before
up there’s a my schema for motion
forward motion
there’s another schema for backward
motion which will get to in a while
now purposes our destinations is a very
common metaphor around the world
were you trying to reach a destination
and things can be standing in your way
and so on
there’s a general matter for also that
linear scales our paths
and when you have that so you see that
in in sentences like
he’s far more intelligent than bill his
intelligence goes way beyond build
wills so you get goes way beyond this
you can see that linear scales
understood as paths
and the mapping there has the bottom is
the source emotion
at the top is the destination and the
amounts travel
are the amounts are the distances
from the source to someplace on the
then you have others notions like good
is up
I where successes up who are you trying
to reach success
and failure is down and negative skills
backwards motion now %uh
run know Ryan and I did was say
okay what would be in the role model I
love up positive and negative skills
notice hard an easy
opposite scales they go in opposite
I things like pollen short are opposite
and so on you have antonyms I love that
with a goal in opposite directions and
here you have
a the the scale for sensor
something like John can solve a hard
pass on and in the scale
the positive scale is going bottom to
as you see with the the little the
rectangles being transitions in the
circle thing states along the way
so that they range and you start with
the bottom amid Rangers center case
that top and so their top of the scale
at some point
and their implication of those if you’ve
gone so fine a scale
then you’ve gone before so if you’re
this call
then you can do all the rest have been
solved the problem this heart
yes although easier ones down here you
can you know
now somali for the reverse for easy ones
the easiest ones the ones that they like
the least difficulty
are way at the at at the top of the EC
which is aligned with the bottom up the
hard scale
and what happens is that there are
implication or relations between those
but also
inhibitions across them so what you have
is a case where you can predict that if
you can solve
the hard puzzles you should be able to
solve the easy ones
and that comes out other neural
structure and
next right about I’m things like
I will and minimum that’s the last one
have those nearly at then what about
John cannot solve
a simple puzzle K wealthy can solve a
simple one
there’s a going down the simple puzzle
parts that is he if he can’t get the the
easiest ones
that’s what that’s gonna say is that
lines up
with I the bottom the hard ones
so that we can solve a simple one ticket
policy can solve a hard one
and this these inferences come out up
the normal structuring
that you get when you bind together all
love those I’ll examples that we gave
for linear scales that is when you get a
cascade and that cascade gives you
this structure now
there we go write this there was in
grammar is something remarkable Michael
Israel pointed out that
polarity items are four types emphatic
positive ones
an emphatic negative ones and positive
ones are
he’s the I tons of money he’s utterly
native ones like couldn’t sleep a wink I
he did move an inch and so on and they
are going
on the upscale for high then you have
the inverted scale that goes the other
so the emphatic natives are things like
wild horses couldn’t make me do that I
haven’t seen you in ages
the inverted scales an emphatic pub but
I priority items are things like he
needed at the drop of a hat
or he’ll do a performance at the top %uh
that he did it in a jiffy
and so on now what’s important about
these is that
this has not been able to be
characterized in logic
magicians who worked on this have not
been able to figure out how to do these
things in logic but
norrell structure have these gets these
straightforward and gets their logic
perfectly well
and allows you to understand what they
mean summary
this is a very brief overview of
sections in the book
up how brain SPECT and this book has
many purposes
first the show how we can get ideas in a
language I don’t know I think about it
how you get an idea at a bunch in Arun’s
this is the beginning of how you do it
and we’re giving
ideas about how that works next
we want to explain get explanations on
narrow grounds have a wide range of
cognitive linguistic phenomena
and we’ve given explanations for many of
them ready image schemas come from I
what is aspect come from I things like
that word a basic level concepts come
we can give explanations have those next
we want to open up a field in rural
commission as a serious detailed
bringing together results in the fields
of cognitive linguistics
neuroscience neural computation and
embodied cognition
431 aground the contemporary counter
real reason
we want to replace the 17th century idea
with how people really reason and we
want to show how people really we
week really think next we want to show
how noel koch mission
which change fields how they would
change philosophy how they change
the idea moral philosophy morality how
it changes politics economics
and literary studies and we’ve been
writing about all of these things
and that’s very important thing and
finally we want to move universities
throughout the world toward teaching
Eurocode mission
in particular when you’re a commission
of foreign language
these are not really done in the field
of neuroscience itself and there are
you experiments on relatively small
things are sent as a heart feel
but they’re not looking at what
was going on and what we’ve learned in
cognitive linguistics
an experimental I you know
I embodied cognition in their
computation it sir
it requires putting almost feels
together and it’s important that this be
taught because it does change
how you think about reason itself and
which when you change how work with
reason is
you change in awful lot thank you

2 thoughts on “Embodied Cognition Lecture by George Lakoff

  1. I was sold on embodied cognition as a way of thinking that captures how I think about how things are in a better way than I could ever have done. I’ve looked for this for a very long time; and was very happy to find it.

  2. I found the “it” I was looking for; If you ever get the time, Let me know your thoughts. It’s long but knowing your background, I know for you it’ll go quickly. I suspect for most, this will be “heady” as he assumes that you already know a *lot* of stuff. (this is from a professional conference; and is from the neuroscience/linguistic perspective of “embodied cognition”. George Lakoff has been its champion since the 70s; he wrote “metaphors we live by”: and interestingly, there is a book that was written by another, which explain the entirety of mathematics as evolutionary to our species and *not* as an abstract ‘thing” that would necessarily have any meaning to any species other than those who share our bodies/brain ‘circuitry’. You suffered through some of my more ridiculous things; I always seem to find the “it” and then quickly back off of it; but in short, we are metaphorical creatures who understand through analogy to motion (that is, *our* motion through space using our bodies); rather than brains-in-vats. Let me know your thoughts; I know you’re busy; I put this publicly *just in case* there’s someone else who is willing to trudge through this very wordy – and thick – lecture.

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