Drakon Book : Introduction 3 [English Translation]

Introduction 3

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Intellectual terrorism:

FANTASY OR REALITY?

We simply have not yet learned to use the full “design capacity” capabilities of our brain.Ewald Ilyenkov

Why Smart People suffer and die?

Two students of the famous mathematician David Hilbert, exhausted excessive mental work, not having received the required chief scientific results in despair committed suicide. The poor old man has not found anything better as standing at a funeral in the pouring rain for an hour a speech in which argued that their thesis can be corrected.

In science, dramatic situations, unfortunately, not uncommon. Taurinus, taken to the extreme indifference mathematicians, burned his work on the foundations of geometry. Bolyai fell into a mental disorder. Lobachevsky in one of the reviews announced almost crazy. Klein suffered a disaster – competing with Poincare in constructing a theory of automorphic functions, it ruptured, fell ill and was forced to stop all scientific work in mathematics. Even the great Gauss, despite the brilliant achievements and outstanding discoveries, once said: “The death of such a life dearer to me”, and historians believe that his hypochondria and mental illness – a response to the incredibly hard work and superhuman zeal.

Is not such a problem exists?

Analyzing these cases, it is difficult to avoid the impression that certain people for the tragedy lies and gradually gaining momentum a new and extremely negative social phenomenon that is sometimes described as “intellectual terrorism”, but that probably would have been better to call the intellectual servitude. In one degree or another with him experienced by all who have to endure chronic stress and work at maximum capacity. For some back-breaking overload begin as early as high school. Part of it is promoted disadvantages of teaching. ZhanLui Lorer writes: “There is a certain kind of intellectual terrorism, when some students called” zero in math “, though their only fault is that they do not understand what they say … never.”

Severe mental overload experienced by many students, businessmen, scientists and numerous army of intelligent workaholic, which often leads to all sorts of disorders and sometimes – serious illness. There is something mysterious, since all these external manifestations of the problem lies the elusive invisibility.

Informational stress – an ominous SATELLITE INFORMATION SOCIETY

The future of humanity, its very survival is directly related to the growth of his intellectual capacities. However, the requirement of all-round development of the human intellect, the maximum intensification of its work, in many cases runs into a tough obstacle, whose name – the information stress. It was at this point, as lightning from the spark flashes Intellectual terrorism, which, unfortunately, often neglected, considering it a secondary, if not non-existent. However, not all people think so.

Some scientists believe that the information stress arises in a situation of information overload where a person can not cope with the task, do not have time to make the right decisions at the desired tempo with high responsibility for the consequences of decisions. Analyzing the text of solving this or that problem, a person processes information. It concludes that the decision making process. The volume of processed information, its complexity and the need for often make decisions – all this is information overload. If it exceeds the capabilities of a person when it is high interest in the performance of this work, then we talk about information overload.

Stress and frustration caused them to have a tremendous impact on the lives and health of modern man. Stress is insidious. On the one hand, to the emergence of its harmful effects it is not required that the influence of the factors was extremely strong and unusual. It was found that the usual and ordinary factor (such as lack of time) can have a very strong stress effect. On the other hand, stress can lead to an overall depletion of the body, and even to death.

KAMIKAZE brainwork

Protection of intellectual workers from the stress of being in many ways: from prevention to medical relief work through strengthening the capacity of intelligence. That is not a complete list of known “antidotes” Health mental activity, the rational organization of work, improving intellectual culture professionals, promoting scientific creativity, use of the intuition, improved intellectual abilities, different theories of intelligence, for example, the concept of a hybrid of intelligence and many private practices, such as TRIZ (Theory of Inventive Problem Solving), dynamic technique power of the mind, and so on. d. While the existing tools, theories and tools are certainly useful and sometimes very effective drug, though, unfortunately, they do not meet globally and growing the significance of the problem.

What does it lead? Not coping with the steady increase in the complexity of civilization processes, which significantly exceeds the available intellectual possibilities of mankind, the latter is forced to compensate for the weakness and lack of intelligent tools by nervous overstrain (read – exhaustion!) And increasing the duration of the working day of voluntary and forced workaholics. In this behind the scenes of public attention, television and the media is the fact that knowledge workers often become intelligent suicide bombers, which the company is sacrificing cruel and insidious Moloch intellectual progress.

The famous mathematician Hermann Weyl emphasizes inadmissible when transcendental dominion over man, turning him just shout intellectual revelation. And concludes that although science – high objective value, while it – “a branch of human activity, for which you can not sacrifice life itself.”

What is intellectual terrorism?

- Guilty Is Professor of Mathematics, University of Gottingen David Hilbert in the death of his disciples?

- No.

- Did he want them to death?

- A ridiculous question. Of course not.

- In this case, what was the cause of suicide?

Intellectual terrorism – a special social situation when the society, acting perhaps with the best intentions, creates a system of moral norms and social values, as well as a system of direct and indirect incentives and use them to impose a style of human intellectual work, which is almost inevitable, or at high risk It leads to an overload or other negative consequences harmful to the physical and mental health, reducing the quality or reduce life expectancy. The paradox is that the intellectual terrorism, even if it entails the heaviest and other neuropsychological illness and suicide attempts, within the existing belief systems and moral standards is not considered as a violation of human rights.

We believe that intellectual terrorism – is not yet conscious, but a very real and serious threat. The source of all these troubles and misfortunes is that existing intellectual tools, methods and tools are largely obsolete. They are aimed at solving intellectual problems on the principle of “at any cost”, without taking into account the actual cost of mental and neuropsychiatric effects (when almost completely ignored the subtle cognitive ergonomics complex mental activity), and their development dramatically lags behind the pressing needs of intelligent practice. Annoyingly of all, that this contradiction remains hidden, implicit, because it has not yet got into the sphere of interests of modern science as one of the top priorities, overarching issues.

HUMANITARIAN PROBLEM

Is it possible to improve the quality of decisions difficult and highly complex intellectual problems, necessary for the development of civilization, and at the same time to protect people from dangerous overloading of mental health? How to facilitate and improve the work of the human mind? Increase the productivity of creative thinking? Convert difficult and daunting task to the lungs and feasible? In short, to transform intellectual flour-martyrdom into something more worthy of human dignity, and even enjoyable? Can you solve this “most important task” at least in principle?

An analysis of these questions reveals a problem that, to our knowledge, has not yet been discussed in the literature. The essence of the problem, so to speak, is that modern methods of intellectual activity, virus-infected intellectual terrorism, too often turn knowledge workers and students in the patients, the disabled and the dead.

It is necessary to radically change the situation, to achieve a radical improvement of forms and methods of mental work, to learn how to solve more complex intellectual tasks with higher quality in less time and without damage to health.

Intelligent safety civilization – the global intellectual property systems of human activity, allowing, first, in a timely manner to solve the increasingly complex intellectual challenges for the sustainable development of civilization, and secondly, to protect the human brain from dangerous and harmful overload, reducing them to a minimum or completely excluded.

The principle of “first cripple, then treat” ineffective or economically or from a medical point of view. Therefore, we propose another principle: the system of “science + education” should not be harmful to health.

However, the current science can not cripple – so it is arranged. Why is that? In particular, because throughout the history of its development the creators of scientific theories and methods set ourselves the sorts of goals and objectives, but not the problem of the effective protection of human intellectual overload. For this reason, the human brain, the fragile vessel of mind when faced with the demon of science, is extremely vulnerable – unable to bear the load prohibitive, he receives numerous injuries caused by stress.

To resolve glaring discrepancy between the unimaginable complexity of science and modest intellectual capabilities of the average person, it is necessary to understand that the psychological complexity of the science is not constant – it is a variable that can be controlled and reduced to the desired (albeit limited) range. To achieve the goal it is necessary to carry out an extremely painful operation – with the help of cognitive ergonomics methods to reconstruct the whole edifice of modern science, in all its sections and building, turning it from a cumbersome and dangerous monster in science with a human face – that the pursuit of science have been effective, but not threatened human health.

A radical restructuring of science and education on the basis of a new generation of intelligent tools for the elimination of the negative manifestations of intellectual terrorism – unprecedented complexity of the task. Generally speaking, yet it is not clear whether it is amenable to solution, and if susceptible, to what extent. However, the goal is so important and noble, that is to conduct a special study to learn more about the problem.

COMPUTER mythology

Are computers facilitates mental work?

To avoid health hazardous overload, it is necessary to reduce the burden on the intelligent human brain. On the other hand, the development of civilization leads to complication of intellectual tasks and continuous increase in their number that makes the brain is constantly growing demands. How to resolve this contradiction? Is it possible to do two opposite demands – to facilitate the work of the brain and at the same time increase the productivity of his mental?

It is sometimes said that the computerization and automation of brainwork remove this problem. This is not true.Computer use does not lead to a reduction of tension mental activity, because instead of one job (which managed to pass on to your computer), the human brain often gets a lot of new challenges, so that its total load is not reduced and even increased.

More and more researchers are finding that the use of computers in many cases, not only makes it easier, but on the contrary, greatly complicates the intellectual challenges that remain to share rights. For example, Edsger Dijkstra writes about “inexhaustible” and “unprecedented” the complexity of the tasks that must be solved programmers. Psychologist M. Yaroshevskii said: “The success of cybernetics, all prospects for expanding the transmission of technical devices to formalize mental operations that used to absorb much of the intellectual effort of the scientist, dramatically increase the demand for the formation of its ability to produce such acts that can not be committed with computers.” Most scholars recognize that information technology – is the hardest of all known technologies and some even claim that the use of computers leads to increased exploitation of workers and the nervous energy in a number of cases of “adverse effect on the development of thought processes.”

Thus, mass computerization does not negate the problem we are interested in increasing the productivity of mental work, on the contrary – makes it even more urgent.

WHAT IS INTENSIFICATION intelligence?

In our view, to solve the problem should move from extensive to intensive mental activity. We explain the terms. Activity called extensive if the rate at which the brain solves problems expected with respect to the same, and perform complex work in a short time is achieved by sealing the working time and extension of the working day. This means that a person works for wear – for 12, 16 or 20 hours a day, with breaks for rest are reduced to almost zero (“no time to intercept a sandwich!”). If the employee, acting in this manner, does the job ahead of schedule and with high quality, it is called an intellectual hero and set the example: he has done the impossible! It is considered good form to shamefully silent about how such work of our hero hastened to the hospital or the grave.

With intense mental activity timely completion of the task is not achieved at the expense of such barbaric methods, and by increasing the speed of the brain. The intensification of intelligence – a set of intelligent techniques and tools, change the mode of functioning of the human brain in a favorable direction to use it the possibility of “full capacity “.These funds are designed especially to improve the work of the mind at the same time by increasing the productivity of the brain and relieve mental work by minimizing the intelligent unit costs derived intelligent results.

Generally speaking, the idea is not new – throughout the history of mankind ceaselessly inventing new intellectual tools to improve and facilitate the work of the mind. However, this was done to a large extent unconsciously, partly blind and largely spontaneous. The challenge is to turn the process into a clear, conscious, purposeful, controlled and, most importantly, mass.

Criterion Descartes and ERGONOMIZATSIYA SCIENCE

Outlining the philosophical doctrine of the method of Rene Descartes stressed that scientific discoveries and inventions should be made not by the random walk at random on the roads of science, using the method. “Under the method, I mean the reliable and easy rules, strictly observing that a person will never accept anything as true false” and be able to produce new knowledge – all that he can know – “without wasting mental powers.” Highlighted words can be described as “benchmark of Descartes’ modern positions and to interpret them in the sense that the development of effective methods for the implementation of any mental work (in science, technology, education and other fields) at the forefront – in addition to the principle of rapid and qualitative performance work – the principle should be set to minimize mental effort, t. e. minimizing the cost of the nervous energy of the human brain per unit of product produced by the intellectual one.

Comparing the thought of Descartes ideas predecessors, V. Katasonov emphasizes: “Inspired by the dream of a Franciscan missionary in XIII.R. Lull about “great art” that would automate the process of thinking, many thinkers are searching for convenient system of signs, a universal algorithm would allow “without wasting mental forces” to solve all possible problems. The very creation of algebra in the XVI-XVII centuries. even it seems as if only a by-product of this titanic “super idea. ‘”

Unlike the titanic Katasonova superideey we tend to think not universal mathematics of Descartes or Leibniz universal characteristic, paving the way for the creation of modern mathematical logic, but rather their intellectual essence, energy clot, a powerful core that initiated many great ideas and discoveries, just as in the Big Bang our entire grand universe was born from a primary superdense core.

In our view, this core – titanic superideey – is precisely the criterion of Descartes, the true meaning of which his followers adequately and failed to appreciate. We assume that the criterion of Descartes – this is the desired Archimedean lever that allows (in combination with other methods) to “turn” science and education, to rid society of intellectual terrorism.

Let us recall the arguments of Descartes. He begins with the assertion that the basis of all sciences is the same immutable human wisdom relating to the different sciences, as the sun illuminated the various subjects. For knowledge, therefore, it would be much more useful than looking for “Mnogoznanie” in the sciences, to turn to the study of the laws of this wisdom. In this way, Descartes formulates the basic provisions of its method.

Try translating these considerations into modern language. Wisdom – it is the mind, the intellect. The study of intelligence, the brain and the intellectual activity involved in cognitive science, psychology, neuroscience, logic and how to achieve them synthesizing the science of human factors (ergonomics). The modern equivalent of the Cartesian doctrine of the method of exploring and using the laws of human wisdom, in our opinion, to what extent could be a scientific approach to ergonomizatsii science and education, based on the criterion of Descartes and aims at the highest possible intensification of intelligence. We can assume that in the event of the success of this venture will create prerequisites for strategic reform of intellectual work, designed to radically enhance the strength and power of the human intellect.

WHAT IS THE BOOK ABOUT?

I repeat the question: is it possible to improve the mind and at the same time facilitate the activities of the brain, that intellectual work was carried out without damage to health? At first, there is no need to solve this problem Supercomplex in general. It is enough to demonstrate the existence of an effective solution for at least some significant individual cases.Such method shows that the problem is not hopeless, that it in principle amenable to solution. And if so, there is a reasonable hope that, acting by analogy, it is possible to find a solution for other cases.

This is, in short, a general idea of ​​the book, which will detail the detailed down to the most basic practical cases and numerous examples to demonstrate that the creation of a new generation of intelligent tools that have the desired properties, although it is difficult, but it is quite feasible task.

However, we believe that the task of intensifying intelligence can not be solved by traditional means. It is necessary to develop and implement a fundamentally new form of intellectual activity in the design, management, science, technology, education, medicine, economy and other areas. But how to do it in practice? To solve the problem below suggests a number of theoretical tools, based on the criterion of Descartes, in particular the new cognitive approach. The possibility of practical implementation of new ideas is demonstrated by a number of examples, including details of all considered the language of dragons.

Language DRAGON – public intellectual tool of a new type, specifically designed to facilitate and improve the work of the mind of knowledge workers and students, particularly helpful in solving difficult problems and sverhtrudnyh avtoformalizatsii systematization and professional knowledge, describing the structure of human activities and many other problems, which are discussed ahead.

DRAGON difference is that this is not a text, and visual (graphic) language. Figuratively speaking, it paves the shortest path to the target, exploding logical-mathematical, algorithmic and technological rocks and obstacles with dynamite visual images. Through these and other techniques, many (though certainly not all) challenges are transformed into simple, incomprehensible becomes understandable. As a result, achieved the desired prize: increasing productivity, improving quality, hard work is easier and more enjoyable, mental overload decreases sharply, falling far below a dangerous level.

SECRETS OF THE DRAGON WISE: Explanation on the fingers

Some of the ideas related to language DRAGON, unusual. They are very difficult to explain briefly, clearly and yet strictly scientific. To spare the reader from tiring and tedious passages cumbersome explanation, this paragraph was written in the form of funny dialogue.

Author. Do not you think the work you do is very complex and requires a lot of mental effort? So, if you represent your work in the language of DRAGON observed following an unexpected effect. Familiar task in front of transformed and appears in front of your astonished eyes in a new light – it gets easier and becomes a clear, precise and foreseeable. What looked complicated and confusing, is transparent and obvious. Troubles – distinct. Abstract – clear. A first hidden errors visible at a glance.

Reader. But miracles do not happen! Due to what is achieved?

Author. Through the use of more efficient (more friendly to humans) shaped presentation as professional knowledge, projects and documentation.

Reader. Probably, it is very difficult?

Author. Just the opposite. The language of visual images – the easiest language. The motto of the Dragon: The look – and it became clear!

Reader. But languages ​​and so has bred a great many. Why create another one?

Author. hostess came to the shop: a lot of product, and nothing to buy. In general, there are languages, but not for our honor. Let’s listen to the parable.

The parable of how the Lord God created languages

On the eighth day of creation, when the world has already been created, the Lord began to develop formal language. And then something amazing happened.

– Because I love most programmers – said the Almighty – for them, I created three thousand beautiful language.

– And what about the others? – Surprised assistants and the apostles. – After all, they too need their own languages.

– What are the others?

– Well, everyone else except the programmers: physicists, chemists, geologists, medical, energy, nuclear engineers, managers, economists, biologists, lawyers sorts.

– Why do they need their own languages? Let use programming languages.

– Yes, they do not know them.

– What does not know. Let will learn.

There was an awkward silence. Finally, the apostle Paul said diplomatically:

– Your Divine Omnipotence! As you have created all languages ​​for you to learn a programming language – a piece of cake.But man is weak.

– That’s right, he is weak – confirmed Lord.

– So for the average knowledge worker (not a programmer), which concerns above its roof, understand the intricacies of programming is difficult.

– Difficulties can be overcome.

– It is possible, then it is possible. So in fact the soul does not lie, because – contrary to, and most importantly – why? You can not force a person to teach the force that he does not need to work. For most people, a programming language – a “dog” language, and programs written on it – strange hash of Egyptian hieroglyphics. They are incomprehensible to anyone but a handful of their creators.

– What are you saying! – Outraged the Lord. – One can see that you are behind the times. Academician Ershov teaches that “programming – the second literacy”. Today even schoolchildren have mastered the program. And their students, like nuts, click. Note: All programming should know! This will be the common ground for mutual understanding between professionals. And no other language is not necessary. Everything.The meeting is over. Perform!

However, as is often the case with the implementation of guidelines for unknown reasons, there was a small hitch. Or, vice versa, is large. Because the slogan “programming – the second literacy” implies almost across-the ability to program, implement so far failed. Practice shows that the program who can account for only about 10% of the total number of manual workers. So today in the community of knowledge workers formed a significant linguistic imbalance. It lies in the fact that a minority (10% of programmers) owns a huge linguistic wealth, including 3,000 languages. A vast majority (90% of specialists) in addition to the language of mathematics does not have at their disposal no other widespread and universal formal means.

Reader. So maybe this art and do not need any languages?

Author. It is not. Language – intelligent weapons specialist. The better the language, the better the brain works, the better the performance of mental work.

Reader. How can that be?

Author. First of all, it should be recognized that in selecting the general direction of the development of artificial languages ​​allowed a strategic mistake. The current situation where 90% of the specialists do not have the language, suitable for quick and efficient solutions to their problems is abnormal and unacceptable.

Reader. Where is the exit?

Author. It is necessary to eliminate the imbalance in providing specialist language means. As a minority (ie. E., Programmers) have a sufficient number of high-performance language, it is time to think about the rest. Today it is necessary to create not just another language minority and language for all, which would strengthen the weak link and improve the productivity of most mental specialists. To do this you need to build a formal or partially formal language that would not be “dog” or “bird” and “a human” – a public, user-friendly and understandable for everyone. Language DRAGON just intended to at least partially plug this gaping hole. DRAGON – This language is not for the elite and for the masses, who categorically reject “birds” programming languages.

Change of terms or change in the concept?

Reader. So, the dragon – it is not a programming language, but something new. How do you want to dignify it?

Author. can be called whatever you like. For example, the “technological language”, abbreviated “tehnoyazyk.”

Reader. Still unclear: why change a well-established terminology, to which all are accustomed to? What you do not like the name “language”?

Author. It is not about changing the terms, and a radical change in the concept. Let’s start from the stove. We are talking about scientists, doctors, technologists, educators and other knowledge workers. Those who are not programmed, does not program and is not going to program. About those who by the nature of work is simply not necessary. Because their job is quite different. So, the goal is

to create a new language of these people who helped

they would solve the problem, they decide today, but do so more quickly and efficiently. Thus, it is not about programming, and most of the other activities. Hence the name “programming language” is simply inappropriate.

Reader. Still unclear.

Author. Consider an example. Chemist wrote formula

HCl + NaOH = NaCl + H2O

What language is used? Clearly, this is not a programming language, and the language of chemical formulas. The latter is the “native” language of chemists and helps them cope with their problems. However, this is not a common language, and the private: it allows us to solve all the problems are not of concern to chemists, but only some. And beyond the chemistry he did almost no interest. In contrast tehnoyazyk – is a universal language, suitable for a wide class of problems in virtually all areas of human activity.

The most difficult thing in the world

Reader. What do you mean “in all areas”? What are the similarities between the work of the doctor and the designer, financier and agronomist, metallurgy and microbiologist?

Author. General that they all work, that is. e. engage in activities. Human activities – is the hardest thing in the world.

Reader. What’s so that complicated?

Author. The activities consist of actions, and the latter depends on the conditions. In this condition I perform one action at the other – the other. If you work hard, we have to take into account the hundreds of thousands of conditions that form unimaginable number of combinations. And for each combination sometimes need to do a completely different chain of operations.

Sometimes an employee acts intuitively “feel”, according to circumstances. Some people perform the operation itself, the other instructs the various mechanisms, robots, computers.

The problem is that so far there is no effective language that could give complete and accurate description of the activity in all its colorful diversity, richness and polysyllabic, identify its rules and structure, consider the subtle differences and peculiarities of different professions (and there are – thousands) eliminated confusion and confusion, restore order and systematize knowledge of the activities and present them in a clear and usable form. Today’s multi-volume manual containing a description of activities, too hard – the brain is broken, yet understand. In addition, they are incomplete – many knowledge about the activities of nowhere written down and stored only in the minds of people. Pull them out – a daunting task. The lack of convenient language for describing the structure of activities very difficult training. Many important details never recorded in documents and transmitted as an epic on the principle of “word of mouth”.

Language DRAGON intended to reduce or eliminate these disadvantages, to somehow limit the orgy of confusion and chaos. The purpose of the Dragon – to bring order to the realm of anarchy, set clear standards in areas where they have never been, to put an end to the Gypsy freemen and insatiable sloppiness, mow everyone (who agree) with the same brush, thereby significantly improve productivity and gain significant economic effect. Note, Dragon provides a standard means of describing activity, regardless of who performs the action: the person or by their machines, robots, computers.

By the way, the programming – it is also the activity. Therefore tehnoyazyk can be used as a programming language (the reverse is not true).

Reader. Yeah, so it means Dragon – it’s still a programming language!

Author. Look, you, I think, deliberately want to embroil me with those for whom this book is written. We must also take into account human psychology! If I say that the dragon – a programming language, a large part of potential readers immediately otshvyrnet her with the words: “This is for programmers, I do not need it!” This is understandable, because the term “programming language” for many has long been turned into a red rag to the hated frightening.

Reader. And I suspect that you are deliberately trying to deceive people, palming off their old product in a new package.

DRAGON Why two heads?

Author. No cheating is not in sight. Just DRAGON language has two fundamentally different functions. For most workers it is new means of increasing the efficiency of intellectual work, and it has virtually no means unique in the world. In this capacity, dragon has nothing to do with programming. Therefore, the esteemed people who do not like or even hate programming, you can in all honesty say

You’re right. Programming language – your enemy.But the dragon – not a programming language.

DRAGON – your friend

The second function is that programmers DRAGON actually a programming language. Thus, the dragon has two heads, facing the very different audiences. And each head trying to guess the hidden needs of its audience and possibly meet them well.

Reader. So, you want to please and ours, and yours?

Author. That’s it. This is one of the key benefits, because the language DRAGON can be used as a convenient “bridge of understanding” between the programming and non-programming majority minority, between “beskompyuternoy” Computer and intellectual activity.

INFORMATION ON THE STATE OF AFFAIRS

Language DRAGON developed jointly by the Russian Space Agency (SPC automation and instrumentation, Moscow) and the Russian Academy of Sciences (Institute of Applied Mathematics. Keldysh, Moscow) as a generalization of experience in the creation of space shuttle “Buran”. On the basis of the Dragon is based automated technology software design ( CASE -technology) called “graph-phlox.” It has been successfully used in several large space projects, “Sea Launch”, “frigate”, “Proton-M” and others.

DRAGON – a very easy language. So easy that many developing computer programs for space rockets in practice are not programmers, and those of ordinary skill – on the principle of “programming without programmers.” The reason for not programmers simple.When solving practical applications specialists thoroughly proficient and know very well the material formulation of the problem. In contrast, the programmers do not know, “the physics of the process” and become “superfluous men”, without which it is possible to do. This can significantly reduce costs, improve the performance of “cost-benefit” to accelerate progress and to get rid of errors “broken telephone” caused by mutual misunderstandings between programmers and specialists.

DRAGON universal. It can be used to visualize and fast algorithm development, not only in “space,” but in “earthly” human activities. The practical usefulness of the Dragon has been praised. The Ministry of Education has included the study of language DRAGON program of high school course of computer science (see .: Approximate program of discipline “Computer science”. Official publication. – M .: State Committee, 1996, pp 3, 4, 15, 16).

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