Drakon Book : Chapter 3 [English Translation]

Chapter 3

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CONSIDERATIONS influenced the creation of

LANGUAGE DRAGON

All the literature on computers … presents us with tales of the great euphoric victories, while the number of analyzed shameful stains very little.

Paul Strassman

What is more important:

PC or a human brain?

Intellectual foundations of modern civilization is a collective intellectual activity of millions of people engaged in various organizations, creating and consuming information products. However, in the era of mass computerization, many organizations are faced with a new and largely unexpected problem. As the power and reduce the unit cost of computers increasingly negative impact on time and cost of implementation of intellectual work has insufficient productivity of knowledge workers themselves. There is a paradoxical situation: the intellectual worker turns to the weakest (and often most expensive) unit of the automated technology solutions of numerous scientific, practical and other problems. World experience shows that most organizations spend too much money on an information product, and gets little impact due to the low productivity of the creative staff. In these circumstances, it is a requirement to increase productivity of knowledge workers (ie. E. A person, not a machine) is becoming increasingly important.

Another surprise is that the traditional concept of “productivity”, born in the depths of material production, where it is perfectly legal and trustworthy accounting tool, being transferred to the sphere of information production to assess the work of knowledge workers often lose the former uniqueness becomes poorly defined and misleading.

To avoid trouble, you need to clearly define the three concepts:

  • integrated performance “staff computers”;
  • performance computers;
  • the performance of its own personnel, ie. e. the human brain.

This allows us to formulate a thesis. Integrated Performance Systems’ staff computers “depends on two independent factors: PC performance and productivity of the brain. The first is growing rapidly, and the second, on the contrary, more and more behind the growing demands and often turns into a main brake increase the efficiency of organizations.

Why is increasing the performance of computers? Due to the growth of their speed and the amount of memory, increase the effectiveness of programs and transfer of all the new features. However, these reasons do not have absolutely no effect on the speed of the human brain, as the latter does not depend on the power of computers, or on the degree of automation. This is where the roots one of the main reasons many failures associated with ill-conceived attempts to raise the intellectual capacity of staff.

WHAT IS PERFORMANCE brainwork?

The literature on computer listed three concepts (integrated system performance “staff-computers”, computer performance and employee productivity) are usually not mixed dismembered and that confuses and eliminates the possibility of a correct analysis and problem solving. In this regard, it is advisable to return once again to the problem and justify it in more detail.

It has long been recognized that the bottleneck were not so much computing as human resources, so the task of saving the human, not a machine has become a central resource for software engineering. It is easy to see that this conclusion goes beyond programming and is universal, covering a wide variety of types of complex intellectual work. Beginning with a certain limit further expansion of intellectual power of computers, software and networks would be meaningless if the human brain is unable to process the information available to him. This means that in the first decade of the XXI century.lack of productivity of the human brain will be a major factor limiting the ability to increase mental power of human institutions and limiting the intellectual progress of civilization.

Given the above, it is necessary to eliminate the ambiguity of the term “productivity of mental work”, exclude the possibility of false interpretations and give very clear and precise definition of this important concept. According to the author, the best way is to limit unnecessarily broad scope of the concept and interpreted in a narrow sense, as the increase in productivity of the brain.

By definition, the effective activity – an activity that allows you to get the desired result at the lowest cost. This implies that intellectual activity is effective only if it can achieve high-quality results with the least intelligent intelligent cost. Thus, the requirement to minimize the intellectual effort (minimizing the cost of the human brain nervous energy expended for a given predictive outcome) is equivalent to the requirement of improving of the mind, mental labor productivity.

A similar position is taken by other authors. The literature can be found, for example, such expressions: increased efficiency of the brain, improving the quality of the brain, increasing the efficiency of the functioning of the human brain, “increasing the productivity of mental work” related to “the improvement of the human mental processes,” “facilitate the process of our thinking”, “economy thinking “and so on. d.

These and other facts and considerations support the conclusion: to increase mental performance rights (for research purposes which is considered by itself, so to speak, from the computer), you need to minimize the costs of the human brain intelligence unit created intellectual products.

Does staff productivity

On the performance of your computer?

What determines the integral intellectual productivity of a large organization, actively uses computer technology? The total time that staff spends on creative solution to a complex problem is determined, in particular, to two factors. Firstly, passively waiting time for a response from the computer; This time depends on the speed of computers, so with increasing speed in many (though not all) cases, it can be ignored. Secondly, the speed of implementation of mental operations in the human brain thinking problems.

It is clear that the rate of human thinking (understood as the speed of the human brain in dealing with this or that production targets) does not depend on the speed of the computer or on the amount of computer memory and is determined entirely different reasons. What then?

If we consider that while using the computer more than 99% of the information received by a person of view, the most important type of computer data (in terms of human perception) is written, t. E. “Absorbs eyes” information that a certain way interacts with the brain and has a major influence on his work. What is this effect? Does the productivity of the brain on the quality of information supplied to it? Apparently, yes. We can assume that the human brain while solving intellectual problems depends on the speed of perception, understanding and assimilation of incoming messages to the brain, and the last – of the visibility, clarity, sense of fullness and other useful properties of the information material to be accurately and clearly reflect the essence of the question, setting objectives and the course of its decision. If any (including the most complex) information will be presented on the basis of “look – and it became clear” if due to a successful form of feed every employee quickly looks into the heart of the matter, and in a short time to perform the task, intelligent staff productivity will certainly be high.

Can I increase the speed of work

The human brain?

How can I increase the productivity of the brain? Answer Here is an example. Changing the language of the Roman numbers into the language of Arabic numbers made it possible to dramatically increase productivity when performing arithmetic operations. As noted by David Marr, “this is the main reason why the Roman culture could not develop the math as did the early Arab culture.”

Another example. It is known that the transition from programming in machine code to autocode and assemblers, and then high-level languages ​​will significantly enhance programmer productivity. Therefore, the performance depends on the language: improving the language, you can increase productivity. Based on this, we can assume: ceteris paribus the rate decision by the human brain depends on the intellectual tasks of cognitive quality professional language with which to address these problems.

Cognitive quality – a set of language features that accelerate the understanding and solution of problems, and to ensure effective verification (check).The higher the quality of cognitive language, the less intellectual effort a person spends on learning, understanding and error-free solution to the problem, the higher the productivity of his brain. Under theverification is defined here as the identification of inconsistencies, errors, weaknesses, sense of incompleteness and other shortcomings in the human visual inspection written for solving the problem presented on the screen or paper. A written decision (written presentation of knowledge) is expressed through signs, notations, drawings and diagrams written language. And the language here is understood in the broadest sense: for example, the user interface is a subset of resources of professional language.

Many authors emphasize that the selection of effective language can have a beneficial effect on the productivity of thinking. For example, Ernst Schroeder writes that the successful use of signs can significantly enhance human thinking.Unsuccessful marks have an inhibitory effect on thinking. Signs need not only to transmit our thoughts to others, but also for the formation of thoughts themselves. Unsuccessful languages ​​even able to make a simple problem unsolvable.Conversely, a task to get comfortable landmark expression is half solved.

Particularly successful are the latest visual language that can be described as an effective method of graphic representation of knowledge, allowing to reveal hidden reserves increase productivity dvuhpolusharnogo brain. James Martin and Karma McClure say: good, clear images played an important role in the design of complex systems and development programs.Our ability to think depends on the language that we use for thinking. The images by which we describe complex processes are a form of language. Suitable images help us to visualize and invent these processes. Bad choice of images may deteriorate thinking. Conversely, the use of good images can speed up and improve the quality of the results.

This allows us to put forward the following working hypothesis: to improve the mind, increase the productivity of the human brain in dealing with intelligent production targets, it is necessary to improve the cognitive characteristics of professional language used in the performance of intellectual work. This hypothesis is the basis for the development of the language of dragons.

A formalized

PROFESSIONAL KNOWLEDGE

With the advent of millions of personal computers access to computer technology in addition to professional programmers got two large groups of non-programming users. The first group consists of people of relatively low and semi-skilled secretaries, clerks, technicians, cashiers and other technical workers. The second group consists of highly skilled experts of the national economy and the social sphere: scientists, engineers, technologists, economists, lawyers, and so on. D.

On the other hand, most of the computer park of the planet is still used to solve relatively simple problems. For example, as a typewriter in the documentation and editing texts in the mode of the electronic pen while drawing drawings, diagrams and pictures to enter, search, sort and send information and so on. D. While these services are certainly useful and save a lot of time, they almost does not concern one of the most important issues: the professional knowledge and skills of highly qualified specialists, ie. e. the content, the creative side of solved complex professional tasks.

However, this is hardly surprising. For specialist knowledge today in most cases they are in his own mind, and not in the computer. In these circumstances, it is natural that the machine can not process them. To get out of the situation, it is necessary to do, at first glance, a very simple thing: to “pull” from the head of the expert knowledge and “poke” them into the computer, t. E. To carry out the so-called knowledge formalization. Under these conditions, the computer can not perform surface and deep process knowledge.

Today, only a very few specialists have the experience of the national economy effective formalization of knowledge. The bulk of the workers is bad, what is at stake. The reason is simple: the old methods of formalization were so complicated that simply frighten people. After this, I may say, “formalizing” the most primitive of knowledge acquired is so cumbersome, arcane and unnatural appearance that even a person who knows well, what it is about looking at a formal record, perceived it as a mysterious puzzle.

Traditional computer programming are sometimes treated as a special case of formalization of knowledge. It argued that programmers are better than others are able to formalize their knowledge. This is not quite true. Much of the knowledge misses the text of the program, remaining in the head programmer. According to the academician A. Ershov, “programming language encodes the problem domain objects, and our knowledge about these objects remains outside the program text.” That is why to understand complex program in the absence of its author, it is very difficult or even impossible. We have to admit that the known methods of formalizing imperfect and in need of serious updating.

Can we do without cognitive science?

There are two points of view on the problem of formalization. According to one specialist with expertise (typically referred to as “the expert”), are not able to independently, without help formalize his knowledge, since the problem of formalization is too difficult. Representative of this trend E. Feigenbaum emphasizes: “By experience we know that most of the knowledge in a particular subject area is private property specialist. And it is not because he does not want to divulge their secrets, but because he is unable to do so – after specialist knows much more than he realizes. “ Exaggerating, we can say that according to the expert this position is somewhat like a dog: intelligent eyes, and say (in a formal language) can not do anything. Hence the conclusion that the solution to the problem of formalization requires special assistant – engineers knowledge (cognitive science), which, acting by a special technique, interviewing experts, formalize the “lessons” of his knowledge and introduce them to the computer.

It takes a different position G. Gromov believes that the expert should formalize their knowledge on their own, without the help of knowledge engineers and professional programmers, or more precisely, when the “minimal technical support.” This method is called “avtoformalizatsiya knowledge” 1.

Avtoformalizatsiya useful because it allows you to eliminate unnecessary intermediaries and avoid the pitfalls of “broken telephone”. Here, however, the question arises. And whether the expert to formalize their knowledge? Will not an impossible task for him?

For such doubt there is good reason, because the old methods of formalizing due to their complexity, practically eliminates the possibility of successful goal achievement. Therefore, if we really want to go to self-service in the formalization of knowledge, the first thing to do – is to simplify the technology of formalization.

What is the difference Algorithm

From the process?

Technology concept is very capacious. Technologies are very different: industrial, agricultural, construction, medical, environmental, educational, managerial. There are more specific concepts, such as technology audit of banks and enterprises, and so on. D. Scope of application of this concept is constantly expanding. Recently, there was a term “election technologies”, t. E. Technology electoral campaigns for elections to the authorities.

Let’s try to find out whether the similarity between the concepts of “algorithm” and “process”? Referring to the definitions.

Algorithm – finite set of regulations defining solution of the problem by the finite number of operations.The technological process – a set of techniques and methods for the preparation, handling or processing of raw materials, semi-finished products or articles, carried out in industry, construction, agriculture and other industries. A cursory analysis of these definitions can lead to a false conclusion that the algorithms and processes have nothing to do. However, in reality it is not.

It is known that the term “algorithm” is used more broadly to represent the human activities in a strict sequence of individual elementary actions or procedures and processes can be defined as “a sequence designed to create a predetermined object operations (process steps), each of which is based to any natural processes (physical, chemical, biological and others.) and human activities. ” Careful analysis of these and many other definitions shows that investigated the concept is largely the same, and the differences in a sense, irrelevant. In other words, the process and the algorithm – is the concept of twins or at least “close relatives.” To make this idea more convincing, we try to move away from the traditional point of view and propose new definitions.

Algorithm – a sequence of information actions leading to the goal. The technological process – a series of information and physical actions leading to the goal. Thus, the only difference is that the algorithm physical actions are prohibited, and in process technology – allowed. Examples of physical activities are: transportation of cargo, heating parts, missile launch, stitching wounds, and so on. D.

For our purposes, it would be convenient to define technology as an activity (sequence), leading to the goal. While agreeing with this approach, we are able to consider the algorithm and process technology as special cases the technology, which acquired the status of a generic concept.

WHAT IS THE LANGUAGE OF TECHNOLOGY?

According to the author, revealed similar concepts of “algorithm” and “technical process” is fundamental and far-reaching consequences. Unfortunately, this similarity has not yet attracted the attention of scientists due, which led to negative results and largely contributed to the division of science into “isolated cells”, creating unnecessary obstacles to inter-sectoral and interdisciplinary contacts. Today, programmers and technologists (in the broadest sense, including agronomists, doctors, teachers, administrators, and so on. D.) – It is different “castes” that receive different backgrounds and speak different technical languages. Such barriers make it very difficult communication between experts in solving the problems of automation and work on interdisciplinary projects.

Called the lack of (difficulty understanding) can be reduced or eliminated by creating a common language, equally convenient for engineers, programmers and other specialists. To indicate the language proposed term technological language (tehnoyazyk). The first candidate for the role of language technology is a dragon.

Tehnoyazyk has a dual purpose. On the one hand, it provides an opportunity (like any other algorithmic language) to design algorithms, write programs and broadcast them in the object code. On the other hand, it allows to unify the recording processes of any nature in any domain. And do it in such a way that the unified (standard) recording process technology is, firstly, a more rigorous, free from gaps and ambiguities, and secondly, more intuitive, straightforward, and very convenient for the reader.

It should be emphasized that the purpose of the use of language technology in the development of computer software and technical processes are different. In the first case (creation of programs) language allows the translation into machine code. In the second case (technology description) are two possible situations. If there is an automated control system and a description of the technology is designed for the computer, control process technology, the description is automatically converted into a computer program, and the problem reduces to the previous case. If the automated control system and control computer are missing or are not required, and therefore do not need a translation, the language is used as a unique solution of problems and mutual understanding between people, which in itself is an extremely valuable feature of language.

Thus, tehnoyazyk – a new type of language that combines mathematical rigor algorithmic language of user-language cross-sectoral and interdisciplinary communication, suitable for a visual description of the technology and understanding between professionals.

The thought of the possibility and feasibility of creating a universal language based technology, in particular, on the following assumptions. Ninety percent of the specialists involved in the economy, do not know how to program.Meanwhile, these people have successfully addressed the challenges they face. So they have the knowledge about the sequence of actions needed to solve their problems. These skills can be called technological (mandatory, procedural, algorithmic). Thus, there is a curious situation: the vast majority of economic specialists have technological knowledge, but do not know how to express them accurately (algorithmization) because there is currently no easy and convenient language designed for non-programmers, and is intended for algorithmization (formalization) knowledge.

TECHNOLOGICAL AND declarative knowledge

Human knowledge expressed by any written language can be divided into two parts: the technological one and declarative.

Technology (mandatory, procedural, algorithmic, operator) contain information about the knowledge of the sequence of information or physical activities, as well as the choice of the way in the branching process. Examples include algorithms, computer programs, as well as any processes (industrial, agricultural, medical and so on. D.).

Declarative (descriptive, attribute, descriptive) – is not the knowledge of the action, and descriptions of the information and physical objects. An example of a typical entry in the database:

Surname Name Middle Name Yearbirth Education Position Relationshiplocation
Ivanov Sergei Petrovich 1970 higher manager married

For the presentation of declarative knowledge the representatives of different professions often use a variety of declarative languages, including graphics (visual). For example, declarative knowledge Designer expressed in the language of design drawings, electrical – in the language of electrical circuits, geography – in the language of maps.

For our purposes, a great interest is the question: is it possible to create a single universal language presentation of professional knowledge, easy to specialists of any profession and allows you to improve communication between them?For declarative knowledge the answer is likely to be negative. Because you can not cross a snake with a hedgehog, and come up with a reasonable and useful hybrid circuitry and the geographic map (or engineering drawings). This path will inevitably lead to a dead end.

So we have to put up with the conclusion that the specialists of different professions will continue to use a lot of variety of declarative languages. Unification is not possible 1 .

In contrast to the declarative knowledge technological knowledge specialists of any profile have exactly the same structure, which does not depend on a particular specialty and subject area. Hence the important conclusion: to display any technological knowledge can use the same language, common to all scientific and academic disciplines. This circumstance is significant in three ways.

First, create favorable conditions for the construction of a universal process language allows the expression of any technological knowledge in any subject area into a single standard form.

Second, the purpose (in the broadest sense of the word) tehnoyazyk could play the role of intersectoral and interdisciplinary language assistance in solving the most important problem – the problem of understanding between scientists and specialists.

Third, the means to describe the structure of activity, technological knowledge plays a special role in human life. In fact, people – being active. From birth to death, he acts continuously. Activities expresses the essence of life. Inactivity – it is death. Therefore, knowledge of the structure of activity (technological knowledge) are an important component of human knowledge, and their basis. We can assume that in the system of human knowledge technological knowledge play a fundamental role – the role of the supporting structure or frame that holds together (glues, cements) fragments of declarative knowledge. The foregoing is consistent with the well-known view that “the majority of knowledge about the world can be expressed in the form of a procedure or sequence of actions aimed at achieving specific goals.”

Socio-economic achievements of society are highly dependent on the development and introduction of new technologies.Meanwhile, ways to describe the structure of activities and new production processes used by technology specialists (in the broadest sense of the word), inadequate and poorly formalized using the experience gained in algorithms and programming. On the other hand, many mathematicians, algorithm and programmers are experiencing serious difficulties with the need for clear and lucidly describe the nature, structure and content of the proposed mathematical solutions, algorithms and created software systems and transfer relevant knowledge to others.

In 1989 the magazine “Fortune” tried to find out why it is so difficult to write programs: “Software – a” matter of pure thought, “incorporeal and speculative; so designers are not able to draw a clear, accurate and detailed drawings and diagrams, as do the developers of electronic devices, to give clear guidance to programmers what to do. Therefore, routine communication between programmers, their chiefs and ordinary people who use the program – it is a thing in itself. “However, supporters of the RAD think differently. Commenting on the said article, James Martin writes: “It is important to understand that this folk wisdom is wrong today.” Within the RAD apply “accurate and detailed drawings and diagrams (similar to that constructors draw electronic equipment) via technology -CASE I , and of these drawings generated code. At the level of drawings done a significant part of inspections. These drawings and diagrams are very effective in daily communication programmers, system analysts, managers and end users. Trying to create programs without these funds means only one thing – the irresponsible leadership. “

We add that the I-CASE (Computer-Aided Integrated Systems Engineering) – a special term for the automated creation of integrated technology systems, mandatory feature of which – in contrast to conventional, non-integrated CASE -technology – the automatic conversion of drawings in the source code of the desired language ( and then – in the object code).

To design a complex business application, system analysts and users should be able to consider the problem from different angles. Therefore, the methodology RAD various forms of drawings (schemes “entity-relationship”, data flow diagrams, circuit action scheme of decomposition processes, and so on. d.), necessary for the understanding and design of various aspects of your application.

Different types of drawings – are different spotlights illuminating the system being designed with different positions and at different angles; by the multilateral lighting works out well to understand and work through the various parts of the project, including the darkest corners.

Each of these schemes is a well-defined visual (graphic) language. Tools I-CASE allow to establish the exact relationship between the schemes linking them thereby giperskhemu single computer, convert drawings into each other, keep their value in repository (so called knowledge base, which is a common repository of all information about the project). The repository is provided with the coordinator of knowledge (knowledge coordinator), which ensures consistency between different parts of the knowledge stored in the repository, and check the correctness of the newly introduced data to it.Information output from the repository fed to the code generator, and if necessary, the optimizer. These and many other methods, means and tools provided in the RAD , provide a significant increase in productivity.

LANGUAGE SCHEME ACTION AND THE DRAGON

Martin stressed that among the various graphical tools used in the methodology RAD , it is especially important drawing (graphic language), showing the structure of the program. It should show the optimal structuring programs portray, the nested structures, terms, structure, selection, exits by mistake, access databases, calls to programs and other software design.

Curiously, Martin continues that in the early stages of these drawings were missing. Perhaps this is why some of the earlyCASE -Instrument did not support graphical tools structuring programs. Meanwhile, the graph makes it possible to make the structure very clear and distinct.

To represent program structures in the methodology RAD uses special drawings called “scheme of action” (action diagrams). These schemes can be drawn independently from any programming language, a graphic pseudocode, and can be set to a particular language, such as the language of the code generator. They are also used to represent the specifications of the structural shape.

Most of the leading CASE -technologies used schemes of action. Martin believes that they “are the best way to represent the structure of programs and work with them.”

The author can not agree with the last statement. In our view, although the scheme of action has several advantages, however, all the most important parameters are inferior language DRAGON and represent the weakest point RAD -metodologii. One of the goals of language DRAGON – performance improvement methodology for RAD by replacing circuits Action into a dragon.

In recent years, new schemes – schemes of activity (activity diagrams). However, they also clearly losing compared to a dragon.

NEED FOR CULTURAL CHANGE

Methodology RAD , as well as other computer methodology represent a remarkable achievement and a spectacular breakthrough in the future. At the same time they are characterized by certain limitations, since their task is not to create a truly “national” language of inter-sectoral (tehnoyazyka) designed for communication specialists from different professions, who at the same time would ensure improvement of the mind and the strong growth performance in avtoformalizatsii mandatory professional knowledge.

In our view, tehnoyazyk must entail some change in culture, in other words – to become a new element of language culture. It seems appropriate to the following analogy. Several centuries ago, the development of engineering and construction business was restrained, among other reasons for the lack of language, allowing to efficiently capture the necessary knowledge. Public demand for such language was extremely high. When Gaspard Monge first proposed the idea of descriptive geometry and there are three projections (front, plan, profile), it led to the formation, consolidation of standards and worldwide spread of the language design and construction drawings. The latter became one of the most important language means technological civilization and at the same time part of world culture. Humanity has received a much-needed and long-awaited language tools for capturing and enrichment of relevant knowledge. As a result, industrial development has accelerated markedly.

I think today there is roughly the same situation, because the need to create a public tehnoyazyke, as a tool of intellectual understanding and interaction among people, cross-sectoral synthesis and avtoformalizatsii imperative knowledge effectively describe the structure of the activities, designing social technologies, improve the mind. It is known that “many people with an active mind and brilliant ideas are not able to make his colleagues understand exactly what they mean,” and such a situation caused by the inadequate use of linguistic resources, is one of the reasons for the lack of modern industry receptivity to new ideas . These and other observations suggest that to improve the mutual understanding necessary to the system is not a simple change in culture. Apparently, as a first step, it is advisable to make tehnoyazyk part of education in schools and universities, and not as an elective, but as a mandatory component of the curriculum.

TEHNOYAZYK as culture

We present without proof-five theses on the possible role of language in human culture DRAGON. The author is clearly aware of the controversial nature of the theses, but nurtures the hope that, after reading the book to the end, you may find them at least partly justified.

  • Currently, there is an urgent need to establish a special high-precision tools to enhance intellectual interaction between people – tehnoyazyka, which aims to become a new element of the language of human culture.
  • Despite the fact that in modern computer methodologies in particular methodology RAD , applies significant number – over ten – of different graphic languages ​​(scheme “Entity-Relationship”, circuit data flow diagrams of actions and t. d.), in terms of human culture they have only local effectiveness as tools for creating information systems and do not meet the requirements for tehnoyazyku. This means that any one of these languages ​​can not be a new element of the language of human culture, which should be recommended for mass study in schools and universities.
  • Among this family of graphic language is more or less the only acceptable means for the presentation of technological knowledge and describe the structure of activity are circuit diagrams of actions and activities.However, they have serious drawbacks and its ergonomic and didactic performance significantly inferior language of dragons. Therefore, as a new element tehnoyazyka and culture use DRAGON instead scheme of action.
  • Bet on language DRAGON is justified because it allows the system changes in the culture: in education, at work (programs and technologies), science (improving communication between scientists), social technologies and other areas.
  • Language training DRAGON advisable to start in high school, using a single visual form to record the activities of the structure, algorithms, programs, technologies, as well as any mandatory knowledge associated with other school subjects. This will at the outset to overcome the current gap that exists between algorithmic and technological knowledge, to strengthen interdisciplinary communication, improve the quality of schooling by a systematic approach to the development of the activity, algorithmic and technological thinking and improve the visual intelligence of students.

CONCLUSIONS

  1. It is necessary to distinguish between three concepts: performance “personal computers”, computer performance and employee productivity. The latter does not depend on the characteristics of computers and determined by the characteristics of the language. In order to increase employee productivity, it is necessary to improve the cognitive characteristics of professional language used by experts in the performance of intellectual work.
  2. Application development in many cases do not have to perform the mediator – the programmer and the end user – the expert of the national economy. Programming should give way avtoformalizatsii professional knowledge, which allows you to get the same end result as programming, ie. E. Debugged object code.
  3. Today, formalization of knowledge – a costly and time-consuming process. The challenge is to increase productivity in the avtoformalizatsii technological knowledge, the description of the structure of activity by about two orders of magnitude.
  4. Declarative knowledge representation language is not amenable to unification. With technological knowledge is different. It is possible to build a single-purpose technological language (tehnoyazyk).
  5. Avtoformalizatsiya technological knowledge, the description of the structure of activity – one of the most important types of intellectual work. In order to achieve a sharp increase in productivity of labor and make avtoformalizatsiyu available for almost all professionals need to create a cross-sectoral tehnoyazyk possessing high cognitive performance.
  6. Tehnoyazyk be used in modern computer methodologies that significantly improve their performance.
  7. Tehnoyazyk should become part of the language of human culture. His study should be provided to middle and high school. To do this you need to be tailored tehnoyazyk, make it easy, affordable for students.

on the one hand, it provides an opportunity (like any other algorithmic language) to design algorithms, record programs and broadcast them in the object code.On the other hand, it allows to unify the recording processes of any nature in any domain.And do it in such a way that the unified (standard) recording process technology is, firstly, a more rigorous, free from gaps and ambiguities, and secondly, more intuitive, straightforward, and very convenient for the reader.

It should be emphasized that the purpose of the use of language technology in the development of computer software and technical processes are different. In the first case (creation of programs) language allows the translation into machine code. In the second case (technology description) are two possible situations. If there is an automated control system and a description of the technology is designed for the computer, control process technology, the description is automatically converted into a computer program, and the problem reduces to the previous case. If the automated control system and control computer are missing or are not required, and therefore do not need a translation, the language is used as a unique solution of problems and mutual understanding between people, which in itself is an extremely valuable feature of language.

Thus, tehnoyazyk – a new type of language that combines mathematical rigor algorithmic language of user-language cross-sectoral and interdisciplinary communication, suitable for a visual description of the technology and understanding between professionals.

The thought of the possibility and feasibility of creating a universal language based technology, in particular, on the following assumptions. Ninety percent of the specialists involved in the economy, do not know how to program.Meanwhile, these people have successfully addressed the challenges they face. So they have the knowledge about the sequence of actions needed to solve their problems. These skills can be called technological (mandatory, procedural, algorithmic). Thus, there is a curious situation: the vast majority of economic specialists have technological knowledge, but do not know how to express them accurately (algorithmization) because there is currently no easy and convenient language designed for non-programmers, and is intended for algorithmization (formalization) knowledge.

TECHNOLOGICAL AND declarative knowledge

Human knowledge expressed by any written language can be divided into two parts: technology and declarative.

Technology (mandatory, procedural, algorithmic, operator) contain information about the knowledge of the sequence of information or physical activities, as well as the choice of the way in the branching process. Examples include algorithms, computer programs, as well as any processes (industrial, agricultural, medical and so on. D.).

Declarative (descriptive, attribute, descriptive) – is not the knowledge of the action, and descriptions of the information and physical objects. An example of a typical entry in the database:

Surname Name Middle Name Yearbirth Education Position Relationshiplocation
Ivanov Sergei Petrovich 1970 higher manager married

For the presentation of declarative knowledge the representatives of different professions often use a variety of declarative languages, including graphics (visual). For example, declarative knowledge Designer expressed in the language of design drawings, electrical – in the language of electrical circuits, geography – in the language of maps.

For our purposes, a great interest is the question: is it possible to create a single universal language presentation of professional knowledge, easy to specialists of any profession and allows you to improve communication between them?For declarative knowledge the answer is likely to be negative. Because you can not cross a snake with a hedgehog, and come up with a reasonable and useful hybrid circuitry and the geographic map (or engineering drawings). This path will inevitably lead to a dead end.

So we have to put up with the conclusion that the specialists of different professions will continue to use a lot of variety of declarative languages. Unification is impossible.

In contrast to the declarative knowledge technological knowledge specialists of any profile have exactly the same structure, which does not depend on a particular specialty and subject area. Hence the important conclusion: to display any technological knowledge can use the same language, common to all scientific and academic disciplines. This circumstance is significant in three ways.

First, create favorable conditions for the construction of a universal process language allows the expression of any technological knowledge in any subject area into a single standard form.

Second, the purpose (in the broadest sense of the word) tehnoyazyk could play the role of intersectoral and interdisciplinary language assistance in solving the most important problem – the problem of understanding between scientists and specialists.

Third, the means to describe the structure of activity, technological knowledge plays a special role in human life. In fact, people – being active. From birth to death, he acts continuously. Activities expresses the essence of life. Inactivity – it is death. Therefore, knowledge of the structure of activity (technological knowledge) are an important component of human knowledge, and their basis. We can assume that in the system of human knowledge technological knowledge play a fundamental role – the role of the supporting structure or frame that holds together (glues, cements) fragments of declarative knowledge. The foregoing is consistent with the well-known view that “the majority of knowledge about the world can be expressed in the form of a procedure or sequence of actions aimed at achieving specific goals” 13 .

Socio-economic achievements of society are highly dependent on the development and introduction of new technologies.Meanwhile, ways to describe the structure of activities and new production processes used by technology specialists (in the broadest sense of the word), inadequate and poorly formalized using the experience gained in algorithms and programming. On the other hand, many mathematicians, algorithm and programmers are experiencing serious difficulties with the need for clear and lucidly describe the nature, structure and content of the proposed mathematical solutions, algorithms and created software systems and transfer relevant knowledge to others.

In both cases, one of the reasons for this negative phenomenon was the lack of an appropriate formal language, able not only to describe the problem and its solution, but also provide a highly intelligent understanding and industrial interaction between people, which is especially important when creating large-scale projects. The need for such a language is very high.

These considerations allow us to make two conclusions. Firstly, the creation of the technological language is feasible task.Secondly, the desired language should be based, first and foremost, as a language formalization process is (and not declarative) expertise. At the same time design and programming in imperative (procedural) languages: pseudolanguage, BASIC, Pascal, C, assembly language, and so on. D. Can be considered as a special case of a more general problem – the formalization of technological knowledge and describe the structure of activity.

Why can not I live in the old?

Information technology – the basis of all modern intensive high technologies. The resulting productivity in high-tech, defense and other industries to a great extent depends on the correct choice of information technology professionals on the effective interaction of the economy with each other and with computer technology.

Today, the efficiency is low, which is caused by a whole range of reasons, including the complexity of modern languages, their actual unsuitable for rapid development, easy understanding and easy formalization of professional knowledge, especially of Difficulty in dealing with so-called semi-structured problems. It is this complexity was the stumbling block, the Achilles heel of Informatics. This fundamental lack of formalization turned professional knowledge and the development of sophisticated computer programs sverhtrudny intellectual process available relatively narrow social stratum and inaccessible to everyone else. At the initial stage, while the computer was a little problem it did not cause too much trouble. It was always possible to find a group of intellectuals who can overcome any difficulty. But then the situation changed radically. Entry into the era of global computerization required to attract hundreds of thousands and millions of people whose intellectual capacity is significantly lower than that of the elite groups.

The dramatic underestimation of the purely human problems (difficulties of understanding) has led to disastrous results.Today it became clear that, despite all the efforts, most of the specialists and has not learned to decipher hieroglyphics current arcane languages ​​and, as a result, was detached from the fruitful interaction with computer software that does not allow them to automatically and efficiently process their own and others’ professional knowledge . All this has a negative impact on the intellectual level of society, significantly reduces the possibility of creative people and effective organization.

SOCIAL TECHNOLOGIES AND ELECTRONIC METHODOLOGY

Information technology – not an end in itself but a means to improve the industrial and social technologies. Social technologies – a new and promising direction 14.15 , aimed at improving the efficiency of interaction between people, groups, organizations and countries (both local and global). Failure to design effective social technologies – this is probably the main reason for the current ills of civilization. Therefore, it is important to learn how to use the vast experience of humanity acquired when creating technical technologies for the design of technology social.

On the agenda of the urgent need to develop a new generation of social technologies that could bring the planet out of the current impasse of civilization. It is a daunting task complexity. It is necessary to turn world-wide army of politicians, officials and experts (from the grass-roots workers to heads of states) in the professional social technologies and social designers armed with all the wealth of socio-humanitarian and other knowledge and techniques. However, this is the future. Today, only the first steps to improve some particular aspects of social technologies. One of them is an extremely interesting group of ideas and approaches to qualitative improvement of the efficiency of the organizations, which are used to refer to the expression “business process reengineering”, “Process Control”, “electronic methodology.” Examples of methodologies: RAD, IDEF , and others. We will limit ourselves a brief acquaintance with the first of them.

METHODOLOGY OF RAPID DEVELOPMENT OF RAD

Methodology RAD (Rapid Application Development) is to develop (with the active involvement of users) of relatively small, but quite complex commercial information systems for business applications, ensuring (that’s the point) the qualitative growth of the efficiency of organizations. Work is carried out by one person or team (up to six people) for a period of three to six months for a strictly defined technology. It involves four steps:

  1. analysis and planning requirements,
  2. designing,
  3. construction,
  4. implementation,

pursues a threefold objective: provide high-speed system development while improving the quality of the product and decrease its value 16 .

Methodology RAD is a generalization of the world’s achievements and focuses on the use of powerful tools. It is constantly updated with new inventions, and also contains a solid core of basic ideas.

The presentation methodology RAD is not included in our plans. Manual 16 – fundamental work, with more than 800 pages. This encyclopedia, and at the same time pathetic hymn to the glory of RAD , or rather, reading the bible for developers of information systems, which are painted in detail the instructions to ensure effective practical use of this method.

We confine ourselves to the brief information, answer the question: In what ways are the two concepts: “methodology RAD“and” the language of the Dragon “.

In 1989 the magazine “Fortune” tried to find out why it is so difficult to write programs: “Software – a” matter of pure thought, “incorporeal and speculative; so designers are not able to draw a clear, accurate and detailed drawings and diagrams, as do the developers of electronic devices, to give clear guidance to programmers what to do. Therefore, routine communication between programmers, their chiefs and ordinary people who use the program – it is a thing in itself. “However, supporters of the RAD think differently. Commenting on the said article, James Martin writes: “It is important to understand that this folk wisdom is wrong today.” Within the RAD apply “accurate and detailed drawings and diagrams (similar to that constructors draw electronic equipment) via technology -CASE I , and of these drawings generated code. At the level of drawings done a significant part of inspections. These drawings and diagrams are very effective in daily communication programmers, system analysts, managers and end users. Trying to create programs without these funds means only one thing – the irresponsible management ” 16 .

We add that the I-CASE (Computer-Aided Integrated Systems Engineering) – a special term for the automated creation of integrated technology systems, mandatory feature of which – in contrast to conventional, non-integrated CASE -technology – the automatic conversion of drawings in the source code of the desired language ( and then – in the object code).

To design a complex business application, system analysts and users should be able to consider the problem from different angles. Therefore, the methodology RAD various forms of drawings (schemes “entity-relationship”, data flow diagrams, circuit action scheme of decomposition processes, and so on. d.), necessary for the understanding and design of various aspects of your application.

Different types of drawings – are different spotlights illuminating the system being designed with different positions and at different angles; by the multilateral lighting works out well to understand and work through the various parts of the project, including the darkest corners.

Each of these schemes is a well-defined visual (graphic) language. Tools I-CASE allow to establish the exact relationship between the schemes linking them thereby giperskhemu single computer, convert drawings into each other, keep their value in repository (so called knowledge base, which is a common repository of all information about the project). The repository is provided with the coordinator of knowledge (knowledge coordinator), which ensures consistency between different parts of the knowledge stored in the repository, and check the correctness of the newly introduced data to it.Information output from the repository fed to the code generator, and if necessary, the optimizer. These and many other methods, means and tools provided in the RAD , provide a significant increase in productivity.

LANGUAGE SCHEME ACTION AND THE DRAGON

Martin stressed that among the various graphical tools used in the methodology RAD , it is especially important drawing (graphic language), showing the structure of the program. It should show the optimal structuring programs portray, the nested structures, terms, structure, selection, exits by mistake, access databases, calls to programs and other software design.

Curiously, Martin continues that in the early stages of these drawings were missing. Perhaps this is why some of the earlyCASE -Instrument did not support graphical tools structuring programs. Meanwhile, the graph makes it possible to make the structure very clear and distinct.

To represent program structures in the methodology RAD uses special drawings called “scheme of action” (action diagrams). These schemes can be drawn independently from any programming language, a graphic pseudocode, and can be set to a particular language, such as the language of the code generator. They are also used to represent the specifications of the structural shape.

Most of the leading CASE -technologies used schemes of action. Martin believes that they “are the best way to represent the structure of programs and work with them” 16 .

The author can not agree with the last statement. In our view, although the scheme of action has several advantages, however, all the most important parameters are inferior language DRAGON and represent the weakest point RAD -metodologii. One of the goals of language DRAGON – performance improvement methodology for RAD by replacing circuits Action into a dragon.

In recent years, new schemes – schemes of activity (activity diagrams). However, they also clearly losing compared to a dragon.

NEED FOR CULTURAL CHANGE

Methodology RAD , as well as other computer methodology represent a remarkable achievement and a spectacular breakthrough in the future. At the same time they are characterized by certain limitations, since their task is not to create a truly “national” language of inter-sectoral (tehnoyazyka) designed for communication specialists from different professions, who at the same time would ensure improvement of the mind and the strong growth performance in avtoformalizatsii mandatory professional knowledge.

In our view, tehnoyazyk must entail some change in culture, in other words – to become a new element of language culture. It seems appropriate to the following analogy. Several centuries ago, the development of engineering and construction business was restrained, among other reasons for the lack of language, allowing to efficiently capture the necessary knowledge. Public demand for such language was extremely high. When Gaspard Monge first proposed the idea of descriptive geometry and there are three projections (front, plan, profile), it led to the formation, consolidation of standards and worldwide spread of the language design and construction drawings. The latter became one of the most important language means technological civilization and at the same time part of world culture. Humanity has received a much-needed and long-awaited language tools for capturing and enrichment of relevant knowledge. As a result, industrial development has accelerated markedly.

I think today there is roughly the same situation, because the need to create a public tehnoyazyke, as a tool of intellectual understanding and interaction among people, cross-sectoral synthesis and avtoformalizatsii imperative knowledge effectively describe the structure of the activities, designing social technologies, improve the mind. It is known that “many people with an active mind and brilliant ideas are not able to make his colleagues understand exactly what they mean,” and such a situation caused by the inadequate use of linguistic resources, is one of the reasons for the lack of modern industry receptivity to new ideas 17 . These and other observations suggest that to improve the mutual understanding necessary to the system is not a simple change in culture. Apparently, as a first step, it is advisable to make tehnoyazyk part of education in schools and universities, and not as an elective, but as a mandatory component of the curriculum.

TEHNOYAZYK as culture

We present without proof-five theses on the possible role of language in human culture DRAGON. The author is clearly aware of the controversial nature of the theses, but nurtures the hope that, after reading the book to the end, you may find them at least partly justified.

  • Currently, there is an urgent need to establish a special high-precision tools to enhance intellectual interaction between people – tehnoyazyka, which aims to become a new element of the language of human culture.
  • Despite the fact that in modern computer methodologies in particular methodology RAD , applies significant number – over ten – of different graphic languages ​​(scheme “Entity-Relationship”, circuit data flow diagrams of actions and t. d.), in terms of human culture they have only local effectiveness as tools for creating information systems and do not meet the requirements for tehnoyazyku. This means that any one of these languages ​​can not be a new element of the language of human culture, which should be recommended for mass study in schools and universities.
  • Among this family of graphic language is more or less the only acceptable means for the presentation of technological knowledge and describe the structure of activity are circuit diagrams of actions and activities.However, they have serious drawbacks and its ergonomic and didactic performance significantly inferior language of dragons. Therefore, as a new element tehnoyazyka and culture use DRAGON instead scheme of action.
  • Bet on language DRAGON is justified because it allows the system changes in the culture: in education, at work (programs and technologies), science (improving communication between scientists), social technologies and other areas.
  • Language training DRAGON advisable to start in high school, using a single visual form to record the activities of the structure, algorithms, programs, technologies, as well as any mandatory knowledge associated with other school subjects. This will at the outset to overcome the current gap that exists between algorithmic and technological knowledge, to strengthen interdisciplinary communication, improve the quality of schooling by a systematic approach to the development of the activity, algorithmic and technological thinking and improve the visual intelligence of students.

CONCLUSIONS

  1. Avtoformalizatsiya technological knowledge, the description of the structure of activity – one of the most important types of intellectual work. In order to achieve a sharp increase in productivity of labor and make avtoformalizatsiyu available for almost all professionals need to create a cross-sectoral tehnoyazyk possessing high cognitive performance.
  2. Tehnoyazyk be used in modern computer methodologies that significantly improve their performance.
  3. Tehnoyazyk should become part of the language of human culture. His study should be provided to middle and high school. To do this you need to be tailored tehnoyazyk, make it easy, affordable for students.

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