CAN become an intellectual SUPERMAN?
|It is necessary, as it is characteristic of strong, to give priority to issues that no one dares to put; you need the courage to enter into the area of the forbidden … and new ears for new music … new conscience to hear the truth before nemotstvovavshie.
ON THE THRESHOLD OF THE THEORY OF IMPROVEMENT WORK OF MIND
Our meandering journey through the colorful and sometimes a lot of difficult chapters could cause confusion in the reader: what is the main idea of the book? The answer we get in this chapter, which is the nerve center of the operation, its intellectual core. Like the climax of the detective novel, it is designed to explain everything and turn intricate mosaic of facts in a complete and accurate picture.
Dioinformatsiya – is any information presented in the form of one or more diostsen. Summing up the formula in Ch. 19, we can write:
|Dioinformatsiya||=||The verbal text||+||Formula||+||Images|
The book is based on the hypothesis of maximizing productivity brain. From this follows the principle ergonomizatsii dioinformatsii, which reads: to improve the work of the mind, it is necessary to improve the quality of cognitive dioinformatsii, ergonomizirovat it. When designing diostsen necessary, in particular, to take care of to present the specified semantic content using the optimal combination of ergonomic text, formulas and ergonomic ergonomic images (static and dynamic).
In an effort to find evidence in support of this principle, we have presented to the reader some examples ergonomizatsii dioinformatsii:
- DRAGON language;
- Examples ergonomizatsii logic;
- Examples ergonomizatsii mathematics;
- Examples ergonomizatsii drawings (the method of “cognitive style” CogniStyle ).
This list can be continued. With the participation of the author developed a technology ergonomizatsii textbooks and teaching materials designed to create ergonomic (electronic and paper) Album graphics circuits (so-called skhemokursov) in the humanities: philosophy, economics, psychology, cultural studies, sociology, history, legal science and so on. Etc. . In the near future the first manuals, developed by this technology, will be released and is expected to start their experimental test in a real learning process.
Based on these and other examples, we have assumed that:
So far we have proved this assertion with examples, that is. E. The inductive method. Is it possible to complement the inductive deductive proof? Is it possible to construct a general theory of the intensification of intelligence from which ergonomizatsii principle and the principle of maximizing the efficiency of the brain stem as a logical consequence?
HUMAN BRAIN need competent to design
Let’s try to make a sketch of the theory of the intensification of intelligence, which is based on two basic concepts – the signs and objects. Under the proposed model, a person is considered as Biocybernetical robotic machine interacting with a sign (of information) and substantive (physical) habitat (Fig. 141).
Thesis 1. (Modified thesis Vygotsky). Signs – man-made sensually perceived social tools, the only purpose of which – to manage the human brain, and through it – the human body, and behavior of all human life.
Thesis 2. Signed control brain consists of two operations: the design and programming of the brain cortex. In the first case changes neyrostaticheskaya brain structure (configuration and nature of interneuronal connections), the second – is changing neurodynamic intracerebral information.
Thesis 3. (Modified thesis Poltoratsky A. and B. Shvyreva). Objects are defined as non-signs. Simply put, anything that is not a sign, by definition, it is the subject.
Examples are any signs diostseny, books, technical and administrative documentation, information on displays, text programs, codes of law, the readings, art, speech, facial expressions, money, music, jewelry, toys, temples. For items include virgin nature, roads, machinery, pipes, chips and all that is inaccessible to the senses: the electromagnetic field, the atoms, electrons and so on.. In some cases, the signs can not be physically separated from the objects. For example, TV – the subject and the image on the screen – mark. If the TV is turned off, the sign will disappear, and the subject will remain.
Thesis 4. In the world there is nothing but objects and characters.
Thesis 5. Human activity is divided into substantive and symbolic. Using substantive tools (for example, a saw and plane), a man changes the world. Using symbolic instruments (eg, speech, prayer, or programming language), people change their own brain and therefore behavior.
Thesis 6. The man – an animal that is potentially (thanks to the peculiarities of the genome) has the ability to efficiently configure and program your own brain (using the specially created for this purpose social tools – signs) and thus multiplies its spiritual, cultural, intellectual and other potency and properties. Currently, these opportunities are not used completely because of misconceptions about the nature of man.
The basis for distinguishing between the sign and object environment is the fact that the first of them plays an incomparably more important role in the formation and development of intelligence and spiritual culture of mankind. This idea was expressed
Thesis 7. (Vygotsky’s thesis on the determination of the sign of consciousness and thinking, as set out in the form of metaphors). Mind, consciousness and spiritual culture of people in the 99% determined by the sign habitat and only 1% – subject habitat.
Thesis 8. Touch the influx of S – the flow of information on the state of the outside world and the human body coming through the receptor cells of the sensory organs of the nerve fibers in the human brain.
Thesis 9. Brain M – bio-computer that handles the influx of S touch and manage effectors (muscles and glands), and through them – the human body, and behavior of all human life.
According to Sakharov, “at the bottom of neurobiology is simple, rational and yet painfully unusual idea that the nervous system – this is the information control apparatus adapted biological means.”
Thesis 10. Brain M, as well as the entire body is formed from a single pervokletki (zygote) during ontogenetic (individual) development under the influence of the genome and the environment G C:
Equation (1) is a mathematical model that determines the development of a holistic brain contains billions of neurons and trillions of interneuronal connections from a single cell – a zygote. The model is specified as a function of two variables, arguments are the genetic code (genome) and the impact coming from the environment C (Fig. 141).
Thesis 11. On Wednesday human habitat is structurally divided into four parts: In vitageny, travmogeny T, Z and signs fiziogeny F:
and listed parts form a complete set of environmental influences on the person.
Thesis 12. Vitageny in – life-sustaining flow of substances introduced into the body during metabolism and habitable conditions are subject environment (temperature, pressure, and so on. D.).
Thesis 13. Travmogeny T – negative impact of the subject on the human organism: injuries, wounds, burns, infections.
Thesis 14. Signs fiziogeny Z and F – the elements of the sign and the subject Habitat respectively acting on the receptors of the senses, which converts them into touch influx S:
Note that vitageny travmogeny and does not affect the senses, and on the human body, and their effects can be either positive or neutral (vitageny) or negative (travmogeny). Vitageny, travmogeny and fiziogeny – this is not signs and objects.
From the formulas (1) and (2) obtain the
Thesis 15. The meaning of the formula (4) is that all the processes associated with the development of the brain as a result of division of the zygote, and any processes that occur within the brain and nervous system in all activities (including the most complex forms of intellectual work) are completely determined by quintet ” royal variables “, which includes a gene vitageny, travmogeny, signs and fiziogeny. According to the model developed, no other reason (variables) for the development and activity of the brain and intellect have no effect.
From a biological point of view, any human behavior (be it a walk, work on the computer or playing the violin) is nothing more than a series of individual movements of the human body, and in every movement involves thousands of effectors.What triggers the effector? When activated, the motor nerves in the neuromuscular synapse is released chemical neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which transmits the command to the muscle to contract.
It is known that thousands of arbitrary movement effectors (which together form the behavior of P) are performed by commands of the brain and nervous system M. Hence, the behavior of P is a function of the processes occurring in the brain M:
Thesis 16. The meaning of the formula (5) is uniquely determined by the behavior of the teams of the nervous system: none effector will not change its state, if the nervous system will not give the desired command.
From (4) and (5) we obtain
Thesis 17. Equation (6) indicates that any arbitrarily complex human behavior is determined by quintet royal variables.
Suppose that the life-sustaining conditions – vitageny – are normal (B ≈ const), and negative impacts – travmogeny – no (T= 0). In addition, taking into account (3), two simple variables (Z and O) can be replaced by a complicated – touch influx S.In this case, the formula (6) is simplified and takes the form
Thesis 18. Formula (7) means that if in the environment there are no extreme conditions, human behavior depends on only two variables: the genome and sensory inflow.
Supplying information to the brain from two sources: the gene and lifetime sensual experience (hereinafter – the experience). Neurobiological analogue of the concept of “experience” is an integral touch inflow
where S (t) – the instantaneous sensory inflow;
t = 0 – the moment of conception and formation of the zygote;
T – the current age of the person, as measured from the moment of conception.
Thus, the integrated touch inflow (lifetime experience) – is a complete information coming into the brain during the interval lived life from conception to the age of the current T.
The concept of “experience” covers the information coming into the brain from the exteroceptors 1 and (for feedback loop) proprioceptors 2. The total number of sensory cells (sensor data), including interoceptors 3, 4 is measured in hundreds of thousands. It is hundreds of thousands of “guns” engaged in lifelong continuous “sensory bombardment” of the brain and nervous system, which has a huge impact on the behavior, life and destiny of man.
A huge amount of sensory information in conjunction with a Rocket mechanism of expression of the genetic code determines the apparent “incomprehensible” complexity of human behavior.
Thesis 19. (Modified thesis B. Stern and Piaget).
The human intellect I – M property of the brain that allows a person to adapt to sign and object environment:
From (4) and (9) we obtain
Thesis 20. Intelligence I any person determined by quintet royal variables that person.
Repeating the arguments set forth in the theses 17 and 18, we obtain
Thesis 21. In the absence of extreme conditions of human intelligence I depends on two variables: the genome G and integrated sensory inflow S.
If we are talking about a particular person already born, having no genetic defects (which means that the gene set and G is normal), (11) follows
Thesis 22. I Intelligence is a function of sensory inflow S:
Thesis 23. To improve the quality of human intelligence, it is necessary to improve the quality of sensory inflow S.
Thesis 24. From (3) and (12) that is a function of intelligence I sign and object (fiziogennogo) inflows:
Suppose that fiziogenny inflow entering the brain from exteroceptors and proprioceptors, is within normal limits. It is understood that the ontogenetic development of the human habitat in the subject intelligently organized in view of the sensitive (critical) periods of development. Under these conditions holds
Thesis 25. Human intelligence is a function of the integral I influx sign information, effects on the brain throughout life lived from conception to the present moment:
Thesis 26. For any newborn human is the only way to improve his intellect is to enrich and improve the quality of the signs, they consumed over a lifetime. Especially effective is the simultaneous supply of enriched sign inflows transmitted to the brain from exteroceptors and proprioceptors (for example, self-solving increasingly complex problems).
Thesis 27. Intelligent inflow Q – part of the landmark inflow Z, reaching the brain through visual, auditory, and skin receptors and affects the human mental productivity.
Thesis 28. Since the tactile (skin) it is not used in the training zryacheslyshaschih, the latter intellectual influx to the brain mainly through visual and auditory receptors.
Suppose that the influx of intellectual directed to the brain through the eyes and ears, is distributed among them in proportion to the number of visual and auditory receptors, the number of which is equal to a man 253 million. And 47,000 respectively. Then, just
Thesis 29. Intelligence sighted people 99.99% determined by the visual sign of information in the first place – dioinformatsiey. To improve the intelligence necessary to improve the quality of the latter.
Thesis 30. (The principle of cognitive diointerfeysa). For the system to “man-dioinformatsiya” effective and provide the highest possible efficiency of the brain and intelligence needed to implement mutual adaptation rights and dioinformatsii.In particular, it should be designed so dioyazyki to coordinate between themselves cognitively important optical characteristics dioinformatsii and cognitive characteristics of the human eye and brain.
Matching characteristics should be carried out in such a way that, first of all, to achieve the most rapid, accurate, complete and infallible perception, understanding and learning, and secondly, to solve this problem at the cost of a minimum of intellectual effort on the part of a person consuming dioinformatsiyu.
Abstracts of 31-33 were described earlier in Sec. 5. This refers to:
- simultanizatsii principle;
- the principle of effectiveness depending on your perception of the proportion of the field of vision;
- the principle of priority complete image.
KEY TO A MYSTERY OF HUMAN INTELLIGENCE
To solve the “best kept secret” of human intelligence and brain need to answer the question: what is the principle that determines the relationship between the sign of the human environment and the basic structural elements of the brain?
Thesis 34. The fundamental structural elements of the brain should be considered flexible interneuronal communication, as they play a key role in memorizing new information and adapt to a changing environment.
Thesis 35. The fundamental role of the characters is that they serve as a “surgical instruments” that change the fundamental characteristics of the brain and, therefore, serve as the primary source of all of the changes (both positive and negative) that carries people, changing the face of the planet.
Thesis 36. Improving signs (creating new scientific theories, ideas and projects, new artwork and more advanced religious studies), the person develops your brain and thus ensures the ongoing development of civilization.
Thesis 37. Learning to design, modify, develop and improve the signs, people thus learned to design, modify, develop and improve your own brain, continuously increasing its intellectual power. It is clear that this kind of “brain surgery” does not require either a scalpel or opening the skull, because the information carried by the – by the action of signs on the receptors of the senses, the brain that transmit the necessary information.
Hence the conclusion: the brain – it’s clay, and – fingers of the sculptor. To a child “increased” the best brains (which is only possible under the given genes), it is necessary since the birth of “feed” it marks the highest quality, taking into account the critical (sensitive) periods of ontogenetic development.
Thesis 38 . The mechanism by which people improve the design of the brain is as follows. First, some authors (manufacturer marks) deliberately or accidentally creating new signs. Then the consumer signs (a role which is not only the other person, but the author himself) sees new signs through their senses. At the same time the flow of character information to the brain, which under certain conditions occur structural changes interneuronal connections. These additional (newly formed) connections encrypted programs to address new challenges that used to be too much for the brain.
So skillfully projecting signs, we skillfully design the brain, giving it the desired characteristics. Conversely, signs illiterate design resulting in wrong designed the brain.
Thesis 39 . Creative activity of man to create a new habitat is divided into three stages. First, people are coming up with new characters (for example, the theory of space rockets), and then use them to change their mind (there are groups of people who have mastered the new theory), and only then create new objects (launch vehicles and spacecraft).
Those three phases are present in a simple creative tasks. Suppose you want to create a new machine technology or computer program. The solution of the starting point is not known, therefore, appropriate connections in the brain are absent. So at first (to “tumble”) people must necessarily transform your brain. How to do it?First of all, you need to find, borrow, or to learn to come up with new iconic complex. With their help a person through numerous iterations reworks (improves) the design of his brain, making it more “intelligent” and therefore suitable for implementation of the new complex work. And only in the third stage, based on the increased brain power of its “improved” the brain, a person solves the problem, ie. E. Creates a new machine, technology or program.
To summarize.The main idea is that intelligence is a function of signs. From this it follows that the power of human intellect depends on the quality of sign complexes, combinations and patterns that the human brain receives from the receptor senses during life. The better the characteristics of the signs, the Optimum Generators of flexible interneuronal communication brain, the higher the rate decision (brain) intellectual tasks . Hence, in order to improve the quality of human intelligence, it is necessary to provide a higher quality characters, in particular cognitive and quality dioyazykov dioinformatsii.
A particularly important role to increase the performance of the brain plays a dioinformatsiya. Unfortunately, the current methods of creating it are highly inefficient. Therefore, in most cases it does not satisfy the principle of cognitive diointerfeysa and inhibits the intellectual capacity of people.
To improve matters, all cognitively complex cases (and there are many or even most) must be fully or partially implement a program of three points:
- diostsen move from text to visual (three-element – see. p. 326);
- increase diostsen format in accordance with the principle of simultaneous coverage of the field of vision;
- diostsen used in the construction of a well-defined set of rules diosintaksicheskih arising from the principle of cognitive diointerfeysa.
In our view, the production of any complex cognitive dioinformatsii principle of cognitive interface is appropriate to consider as criteria of science . This means that research should be not only content knowledge; Form submission must also be evidence-based.
Expansion and intensification INTELLIGENCE
The development of intellectual abilities and the intensification of intelligence – essentially different concepts. The difference between them will explain using a thought experiment.
Suppose two students have exactly the same intellectual capacity, we decided to take the exam without attending lectures, studying the subject of its own, by the book. The first student got a bad tutorial confusing and difficult. But the second, on the contrary, was a good book, written in clear language where complex issues are set out clearly in a clear and simple form. As a result, the first student, obviously, will have to spend on the study of the subject more effort and time, say, one hundred hours, and the other – much smaller, for example, fifty hours. If you agree with these figures (and they are quite plausible), we can say that the mental capacity of the second student was twice as high, although their intellectual abilities are the same.
Double increase of mental efficiency at the second student, compared with the first was due to the clarity and understandability of educational material, ie. E. By improving the cognitive quality of the textbook. Hence the
Thesis 40 . Intelligent human performance R in diopoznaniya (t. e. in the study and working with scientific, technical and educational literature, documentation and computer dioinformatsiey) depends on two variables: on his intellectual abilitiesI and cognitive qualities of the material under study L :
Thesis 41 . From (15) it follows that there are two complementary approaches to the problem of increasing the intellectual capacity of the human brain: improving intelligence I and improved cognitive quality dioinformatsii L .
Iconic and consistent information
The entire volume of information available on the planet, can be divided into two broad classes:
- available for perception by human senses (we call it the sign );
- senses do not perceive, ie. e. inaccessible to man (let’s call it the subject ).
Fortunately, in most cases, people can transform information into substantive and symbolic thanks to learn all that they need. For example, the information hidden in the processor chip, or on the hard drive of a personal computer, a subject (invisible), but it can easily be converted into symbolic form. It’s enough to cause it to display, print out, and in more complex cases – to connect an oscilloscope. The information in the memory space probe, which plies the starry expanse somewhere near Saturn itself is also subject (inaccessible to our senses). However, it is transferred to the ground, it becomes a symbolic form – either in the picture of Saturn, or in a diagnostic message on the screen: they say, so and so, the power supply of the probe is moribund, and soon there will be bent.
It should be understood that the symbolic and substantive forms of information – different things. Perception among computer scientists to distinguish between the desire not even identify these forms (they say it’s one and the same information!) Is a rough methodological mistake. This error, “blinding” the mind and prevents us to make a significant conclusion that the efficiency of the brain is highly dependent on the quality of the information and sign it completely independent of any properties of the subject media.
Iconic and subject PROVISION OF INFORMATION
According to the classical point of view of the totality of informatics tools are divided into equipment (hardware) and software (software). This typology has brought many benefits, but today it is equally important to learn to distinguish objective (objectware) and symbolic (signware) of computer software (Fig. 142).
Case covers the provision of all means of information technology, which belong to a class of objects:
- processors, memory, disk drives, power supplies, displays with the screen off, and so on. etc .;
- Software in all forms, as it can not “see and touch”.
To ensure the landmark include:
- text and images on the display, as well as paper products printers and plotters;
- scientific and technical and educational literature and documentation;
- marking and other symbols on the devices and cables.
Some experts use the terminology of object-sign at the beginning is pretty painful. We must learn to mentally separate the text or image on a display screen (sign) from the display, which is the subject. We must realize that the data in RAM – is a subject, and the same data on a printout – it is the signs.
Iconic and subject programs
These considerations lead to the conclusion that the basic concept of the theory of programming – the program – is highly unfortunate, inaccurate and misleading. The disadvantage is that the term “program” disguises the fact that we are talking about two completely different objects, between which there is almost nothing in common. To identify these facilities we offer, the terms “landmark program” and “substantive program.”
The first usually has a physical being or as a handwritten draft, or the text on the terminal screen or printout. II can exist in the form of codes in memory, magnetic or laser disk, an array of data transmitted by wire, and supplied to the processing circuit.
The landmark program is intended for management of human activities (but not cars), subject – to control the computer (but not humans). More precisely, the sign program is used to control the actions of the original author or his colleagues who are trying to study, understand, test, localize the error to recall or modify the program as well as to control the operation of the user who enters the program in the car. Written on the draft code of the program, by acting on the brain neural codes that uniquely define the sequence of movements (“kinetic melody”), the user’s hands. In turn, the finger movement is converted into mechanical motion of the key and further in electrical and magnetic signals.
The last and are substantive program, which provides direct control of the computer.
In this connection, it is necessary to distinguish between:
- as a sign of the program (quality of the landmark)
- quality objective of the program (objective quality).
The quality objective of the program is characterized, in particular, its execution time in the car and needs memory. The criterion for the quality of the program are emblematic energy consumption of the brain (intellectual effort) required to read and understand the program.
What better sign program than it clearer and more user friendly, the less likely that it hid hidden errors, the higher the reliability of the subject program. Quality and intellectual productivity of programmers do not depend on the objective quality of the program and are determined entirely symbolic quality. The conclusion is: to improve the productivity of the brain software developers need to improve the quality of symbolic software.
Watershed milestone in the history of computer science
In Sec.3, analyzing the problem of “intellectual competition” human-computer, we found that the bottleneck today is not a machine and human resources, that is. E. Lack of employee productivity. In these circumstances, more and more authors came to the conclusion that from the variety of reasons that influence the development of computer science, the human factor is crucial priority. This conclusion, which can be described as the principle of priority of human , is recognition of the fact that the person (customer, developer, programmer, user, and so on. d.) is central to any information technology. As such, the main element of the theoretical foundation of computer science should be a theory of man, the human intellect and the human brain.
With that said, we can not agree with N. Bjorn-Andersen, who believes that the traditional approach to the study of human factors in computing systems is futile “as long as the priority is not given to human and social values, will not be able to solve all the problems, Now that arise in connection with the development and operation of information technology. ” In this regard, we make a number of comments. The fact of the recognition of the principle of priority of human, we tend to be treated as a pivotal milestone in the history of computer science. Up to this point informatics (computer science, information science) was seen as natural and technical sciences, which has little or nothing to do with man and his problems.
The principle of priority of rights, according to which the theory of intelligence and brain should be the main element of the theoretical foundations of computer science, is a radical revision of earlier views, which means that the computer turns into an interdisciplinary science that covers two areas: technical computer science and humanitarian science. In this regard, there is an urgent need for a new conceptual framework, common to the two branches of science, which naturally combines them into a single unit. Subject-symbolic model is a conceptual apparatus required.
The need for such a large machine. The global process of informatization, qualitatively transforming sociosphere globe unprecedented scale intellectual revolution, involving in its orbit, millions of people make the problem more urgent. The paradox is that today people with increasing activity “exploit” their own brains, not really representing the mechanisms of its work. As a result, many opportunities remain untapped brain. To improve the economic and other parameters of the computer revolution, enhance its intellectual efficiency, it is necessary that the masses were armed professionals a clear idea about the structure of the leadership of their own brain. Life imperiously requires a simple, though not entirely accurate, but certainly effective explanation of the “mystery” of human intelligence and brain. What good is endlessly repeated, that the brain is complicated, but the mentality is still difficult. Science moves forward when complex phenomena can not find a simple and useful explanation.
Earlier in the form of theses, we proposed an extremely simple (object-symbolic) conceptual model of the brain and intellect, which has a number of advantages:
- the model does not contradict any experimentally established and recognized by science facts;
- for some of these facts, in particular concerning information and intellectualization, it provides a standard approach to their explanation and understanding;
- it has a predictive capability, allowing to identify the shortcomings of the current process of information and indicate ways to address them;
- model indicates a reasonable way to an intensification of intelligence. It is necessary to focus on a new scientific problem – the development of methods to improve the quality of cognitive character information, primarily dioinformatsii;
- the model is open to the complexity and capacity.
One-eyed missionaries or abandoned CHILD INFORMATICS
Computer scientists have a special, prominent role in modern society. They are the bearers of the ideas of information, a new computer missionaries religion, which in our eyes is changing the face of the planet, turning it into a single information space. Cyberspace (cyberspace) becomes a part of everyday life for millions of people.
Taking place today “overproduction” community of people and communities cars leading to the unification of people and computers via local or global communications systems, creating a new phenomenon of human civilization, which is called differently: “global giperintellekt” ( A. Rakitov ), “superintelligence covering the entire planet, “” integrated system of natural intelligence “( A. Ursul ), “superintelligence globally” ( John. Vacca ), “the mind of mankind”, “the central nervous system of Humanity” ( B. Lishchuk ) “collective intelligence “( Moiseev ).
All of this, of course, good. The bad news is that these enthusiastic comments hide, camouflage extremely important issue, which, unfortunately, is abandoned beggar on a luxury holiday of global information. As the reader already guessed, we are talking about the problem of the intensification of intelligence. This imbalance in the public consciousness is dangerous to continue intolerant. It’s time to put the problem of increasing the productivity of the brain to its rightful royal throne and bring it to the attention of specialists.
The whole set of techniques used to improve the performance of integrated systems of “personal computers”, is divided into two parts:
- strongly influencing the creative productivity of the human brain (call them cognitive);
- does not affect the efficiency of the brain or affect weak (let’s call them official).
Call of methods are:
- automation of intellectual labor (computers take on many tasks, freeing the brain from unnecessary work);
- the creation of local and global computer networks, which facilitate access to information, delivering it to the right place, it is to the person who needs it;
- improved user interface, including the graphical user interface GUI (Graphic User Interface).
The first two methods do not affect the efficiency of the brain, and the third affects slightly as facilitates the solution of only a limited range of secondary tasks associated with navigation of information space, work with windows, menus, and so on. D.
Service methods are irrelevant to the question that is central for us: what should be the presentation of complex professional knowledge and training of the highest quality cognitive? The problem of designing the best form of knowledge representation – this is not official, and cognitive problems. It is a child abandoned science. The recent emergence of serious work on the visualization of knowledge representation – a step in the right direction, but it does not exhaust the issue. The principle of priority rights, the recognition of the importance of the problem of maximizing the efficiency of the brain requires a radical revision of the previous position. This means that without weakening efforts to improve service methods and steadily increasing them at the same time the center of gravity of research should be moved to the official methods of cognitive.
Cognitive writing – NEW METHOD OF PRESENTATION OF KNOWLEDGE
The invention of writing was the most important event in the history of mankind. However, the former has an out of date.We are witnessing a new revolutionary change in writing, which is characterized by the following features.
- Univariate verbal text is replaced by the two-dimensional diostsenoy that allows us to pass from slow to rapid perception of successive simultaneous.
- Singleton letter (text-only) is replaced by optimal ergonomic combination of three elements (text + ergonomic ergonomic formula + ergonomic drawings).
Previously, the science of optimal method of visual representation of knowledge did not exist. Therefore, the author of scientific books and textbooks often acted as a “dictator” and the reader is adjusted to it, is often difficult way through impassable jungle unintelligible verbal text.
The above model is aimed at the scientific support of the cognitive writing. This is of paramount importance the need to ensure maximum performance of brainwork reader aimed at the perception, understanding and assimilation of knowledge.Signs and sign complexes (diostseny) are primarily designed to interact with sensory and neural apparatus of man. Man and signs form a system whose elements are to be agreed between them. Therefore, a new script based on the principle of cognitive diointerfeysa.
When the cognitive approach manual mode of writing becomes almost impossible. This is due to the fact that cognitive diostsena must have very precise characteristics, providing a top speed of comprehension. Therefore, cognitive writing must have a computer accuracy. However, modern information technologies are not suitable for this purpose – they are too primitive. We need new technologies, much more complex and expensive. It is known, however, that the cost – decreasing function of scale. Sooner or later society will be forced to go to a massive intensification of the problem of intelligence. The transition to mass replication of the cognitive information technologies will reduce their costs, which will create the preconditions for the widespread use of cognitive literature. This moment will mark the entrance to the Garden of Eden publicly superintellektualizatsii where we hope almost everyone can feel “intellectual superman.”
One day I was asked to draw a diagram of a complex process designed by a team of developers. Each of them knew a piece of work, but no one owned the painting as a whole. I spoke with the experts to find out all the necessary and has prepared a draft scheme. Since the hand was not a suitable plotter, the scheme has been performed manually draftsman.The result was a paper sheet of impressive dimensions – about two meters long and half a meter in height. The scheme came good – a clear, comfortable, reflecting all that is needed, and does not contain anything superfluous.
Further events developed as follows. The customer decided to “drive” the circuit in a computer: a competent user called and gave him instructions. He vividly mutilated scheme: cut it to twenty parts, numbered lists, which indicates from leaf to leaf, provide them with pointers to search for the line, introduced in personalku printed on A4 printer and sheets twisted into a neat little book.
See the results, I was stunned: visual and understandable scheme was no more – a complete image of disappeared!Instead, I found a monster, is a set of obscure stumps, made on the basis of: die – do not understand! To see the original paper sheet needed ten minutes to figure out the twenty stumps – at least an hour. This means that the performance of the study mental labor circuit dropped six times! Anyone who is familiar with the problem, know that such pearls cognitive illiteracy is not rare – they occur often. The paradox is that people reduce the productivity of mental work unconsciously, without thinking, mechanically, not even knowing what cognitive “crime” they commit.
When dealing with complex issues of intellectual person needs a holistic and comprehensive way at the same time problems. This image must be large enough – it can not get any modern personal computer screen or on paper sheets of small format. Let us recall what was said in Chap. 5: to increase the efficiency of the brain, it is necessary to build such diostseny that allow simultaneous use of the rich resources of perception. If the “clap ears” this opportunity is a powerful reserve of human intelligence remain unclaimed, and the staff is doomed to “partial blindness”. Unfortunately, it is common practice mass computerization. Figuratively speaking, the modern information society, which is dominated by computers with a small screen and A4 printer – a society “castrated” intelligence.
One more problem. It is well known that learning from books robs man of his considerable personal life as well as educational and scientific texts are too difficult to understand. It was found that the amount of knowledge that you need to learn, exceeds the capabilities of the students, their health deteriorates. Despite this, modern textbooks as scientific. Is it so?After all, “without access to scientific meaningless … Undetermined information clutter the mind, for man can not use them. Misunderstanding of educational material causes a feeling of futility studies. ” At the beginning of the century H. Rubakin wrote: because there is no perception, so far there is no content. Without realizing it, the authors of books wasting 9/10 of its forces, labor and time.
If our idea is right, will have to admit that the text books, published in all the continents in hundreds of millions of copies, outdated (not in content, but in form of knowledge representation), for largely ignoring the principles of cognitive and simultanizatsii diointerfeysa that we consider scientifically valid . In our opinion, the textbook only be called academic if the scientific content is invested in science-based form. But today, as a rule, no. The current presentation of training materials too often hinders or even prevents the absorption of knowledge and, therefore, is more of a “anti-scientific” (or rather, pre-scientific).
If you accept our offer and accept the principle of cognitive diointerfeysa scientific criteria, as a result, we find that support for science landmark in many cases, almost completely devoid of scientific basis. There is a paradox: the science is objective knowledge in symbolic form, but the form does not meet the scientific criteria. Thus, in the heart of science is preserved pre-scientific way of thinking. This work is a cautious yet determined attempt to cast doubt on the dominant, pervasive, but outdated stereotypes of scientific thought and offer an alternative approach called “proektonika” (designomics).
Throughout the book, we have emphasized that the scientific basis for regulations and practices put forward a cognitive ergonomics. There is a certain arbitrariness, as the science of human factors (ergonomics) is not a science in the strict sense of the word, but is a very useful, but clearly insufficient association of private theories of experimental facts and common sense. Ergonomics relies heavily on psychological science, and the last in its current form is a set of competing concepts, poorly interconnected, constantly entering the “fight” with the neuroscience and unable to form a coherent and consistent picture.
However, it is not even in ergonomics or some particular shortcomings of psychology and cognitive science. The reason is much deeper and is that modern chelovekoznaniya (including cognitive science, biology, neuroscience, psychology, and philosophy, anthropology, sociology, cultural studies, and so on. D.) Does not have a satisfactory theory of human intelligence and the human brain. In addition, the literature increasingly sound criticism “psychological concepts prevailing in the pre-computer era.”
Given these and other considerations, the author came to the conclusion that the need to develop new areas of interdisciplinary research – proektoniki.
It goes without saying that as a complete system proektonika knowledge does not yet exist. It is just a project for the future of science, or rather, barely a scheduled plan. With these caveats in mind proektoniku can be defined as the theory of the intensification of the human intellect. Probably, its structure must also enter the application system design theory of “man-dioinformatsiya” (man-knowledge), examples of which are shown in Fig. 139. The proposed book can be regarded as the most advanced presentation ideas proektoniki. Theses set out in this chapter (after verification, refinement, development and detail) could serve as an indicative basis for building the theoretical part proektoniki. Numerous examples scattered in the pages of the book are designed to validate and promising theoretical statements.
PROEKTONIKA and Artificial Intelligence
Let us point out the differences between proektonikoy and artificial intelligence. As is well known, “the human brain is mandatory subject of research in artificial intelligence.” For what purpose artificial intelligence is studying the brain? The answer is obvious: Learn the secrets of natural intelligence and brain, and can be used to create artificial intelligent machines, t. E. “Automated systems that perform the same functions as a creative person, at least in their simplest forms.”
It is easy to notice that the very formulation of the question about the purpose of artificial intelligence as a scientific theory contains a space. Indeed, studying the human brain, this theory does not even try to use so hard obtained valuable information about the brain to improve intellectual performance … of the human brain. It is fair to say that the most far-sighted experts in artificial intelligence are well aware of the absurdity of such a situation, recognizing that “in reality it is man who is the main object of study.” In particular, Jean-Louis Lorer believes that over time, “the program of artificial intelligence will have an intrinsic value, regardless of today’s computers.” But what is an intrinsic value? For any useful purposes can be used artificial intelligence program, if you take them “regardless of today’s computers?” Lorer as well, and other experts in artificial intelligence, does not even attempt to answer the question.
This lack eliminates proektonika which focuses on the issue of mental capacity efficiency of the human brain is using for this task chelovekoznaniya achievements as well as artificial intelligence.
In a sense it can be said that artificial intelligence and proektonika (the subject of which is a natural intelligence and methods to improve its effectiveness) – two trunk of the tree growing out of a common root. Both theories derive their source data from the same source, carefully analyzing the facts obtained by science about the human brain and intelligence. However, these facts are used for substantially different. Artificial Intelligence want smarter cars and proektonika – to wiser people. Artificial Intelligence seeks to improve the submission and processing of knowledge in computer proektonika trying to pose and solve the same problem in relation to the human brain. Artificial intelligence machine likens a man trying to give her “intelligence”. Proektonika, on the contrary, for the purposes of research likens the human machine, in order to understand the laws and algorithms of functioning of the brain as a bio-computer and, most importantly, to make these algorithms are more productive. Needless to say, that the two theories are not contradictory and are mutually reinforcing.
Now, raise the level of discussion. The most important task of the theory is developed to clarify what is necessary for effective and harmonious management of human activities and the life of society? The answer is: management of the individual and society is always carried out through its impact on the human brain, so for more efficient management need better signs, sign systems and complexes .
In our view, almost all the troubles of the previous stage of development of civilization due to the fact that the process of creating a landmark habitat (and hence the design process of the human brain) occurs spontaneously, by trial and error, ie. E. Inefficiently. The reason is that the traditional science, being a very successful tool for the design of substantive human habitat, almost no conceptual tools for system design landmark habitat. The theory of designing high-performance systems, “people-knowledge ‘is a blank spot on the map of science. Because of this landmark provision of modern civilization is largely devoid of scientific basis.
This implies that the traditional methods of management of development of civilization should be considered obsolete.They do not take into account the fundamental influence that signs have on the human brain and human behavior, which in many cases makes the development of events in unpredictable and dangerous. In other words, the traditional way does not guarantee predictable, harmonious, successful and sustainable development of the world community of nations and in that sense, has exhausted itself. To make the Dependability of human activity, it is necessary to move from a natural znakotvorchestva to science-based design sign human habitat . This primarily relates to the development of the sign provide scientific, technical, industrial, administrative, educational, medical, educational, prison, state and other important activities.
As a first step we can take an existing reserve, created in the framework of ergonomics in the design of visual display products, t. E. To transfer the experience gained in building systems “man-machines” by applying it to the design of “people-knowledge.” However, the system “man-knowledge” of different qualitative originality, so that a simple transfer of ideas is impossible. This is especially true landmark provide complex creative tasks undertaken large teams of scientists, experts and programmers in the development of large-scale technical and social projects and technologies. In this case, the problem takes on a new interdisciplinary character, the focus is shifting to the problem of the intensification of intelligence, which requires fundamentally new approaches and methods. These are the objective conditions for the allocation proektoniki into an independent area of research.
And MIROINFORMATSIYA MIROINTELLEKT
How can I improve mental efficiency not only the individual, but the whole of human society?
Thesis 42 . Miroinformatsiya (world dioinformatsiya) – the full amount dioinformatsii created all mankind, including computer dioinformatsiyu, professional and academic literature, books and documents. The bottom line is that the world is a powerful tool dioinformatsiya knowledge of the world and the most important element of the social memory of mankind with a unique cognitive features. Therefore, it is in many cases, has a decisive impact on the global intellectual characteristics such as intellectual productivity and intellectual abilities of the population.
Thesis 43 . Mirointellekt (global mind) – the total collective intelligence of brain all mankind.
Thesis 44 . (Principle of determination mirointellekta). Among the many factors that influence the development and intensification of mirointellekta, miroinformatsiya is the main key.
To see this, it is useful to ask: what would happen if dioinformatsiya suddenly and permanently disappear from the face of the planet? The answer is obvious: turn off display screens, zamrut printers and plotters, fax machines, copiers and printing presses. Disappear writing, and people always forget how to read and write. Institutions and banks, factories and construction sites – all stop and vanish into nothingness. Civilization will disappear. This means that the modern intellectual life, and the modern intellect cease to exist.
From the principle of determination mirointellekta important consequences. First, we note that today, as thousands of years ago, the process of cognitive development miroinformatsii has no scientific basis and carried out spontaneously, by trial and error, which seriously hampers the development of mirointellekta.
To address the lack of serious and improve the mind, should be considered as a miroinformatsiyu:
- one of the most important concepts of modern science;
- independent object of research;
- facility management, the aim is to improve the management (development and intensification) mirointellekta achieved by improving the quality of cognitive (ergonomizatsii) miroinformatsii.
Solving this problem is one of the future tasks proektoniki.
STRATEGIC INTELLECTUAL INITIATIVE
Development of ideas proektoniki create conditions and incentives for the implementation of large-scale reform of intellectual labor “strategic intellectual initiative.” Reform must be comprehensive and universal, covering intellectual work in the field of science, technology, education, management, economics, politics, ideology, and in the army, security services and so on. D. It should be conducted on the basis of cognitive-ergonomic design miroinformatsii, improving dioyazykov, cognitive development of information technology.
The purpose of the reform – improve power quality and power mirointellekta, dramatically increase its ability to bring them into line with the fundamentally new tasks unthinkable before the difficulties that stand today before the world civilization and require urgent solutions.
For a preliminary discussion is possible to offer a program of reform of 20 points, having in mind that this list is certainly not complete and needs to be adjusted and expanded on the results of discussion and criticism.
- Deployment of basic and applied research for the organization of scientific support for reform. The sharp expansion of the program of studies of human intelligence and brain. Carefully thought-out coordination of this research with the study of the “brain-mirointellekt-miroinformatsiya.”
- Formation of the new scientific and educational discipline-oriented solution to the problem of intensification of intelligence.
- Formation of a new (cognitive) ideology in the intellectualization and informatization of society.
- Making appropriate changes in the curriculum of the education system, including training the public service and international organizations.
- Training and development of institutional structures capable of ensuring the practical implementation of the reform of intellectual work and to achieve significant growth in the effectiveness of intelligence at the individual, local and global levels.
- Development of a new generation of cognitive information technologies, whose purpose – to maximize the productivity of the human brain.
- Development of cognitive dioyazykov, cognitive computers, software, networks and telecommunications, ensure the transition to mass use the cognitive writing in order to improve intelligence.
- Creating a new printing equipment for the production of cognitive books and periodicals based on the principles of cognitive writing to improve the mind.
- Cognitive Development of computer publishing systems, including a new generation of cognitive text, image and formula editors to strengthen social intelligence.
- Refresher authors of books and of publishing professionals, skills training and the creation of cognitive ergonomizatsii scientific, academic and business literature.
- Using cognitive forms of learning in schools, high schools, colleges and universities, the issue of cognitive textbooks and teaching aids for the intensification of intelligence.
- Retraining of staff, in particular, computer scientists, who must master the cognitive culture.
- Ergonomizatsiya diodokumentatsii any foods and products, including software. Creating new (cognitive) forms of documentation to ensure improvement of the mind.
- Changing ways of presenting information in science, technology, education, management, in the workplace and in other areas of professional activity, the use of cognitive forms of representation dioinformatsii to facilitate mental work.
- Organization of counseling centers for scientists, professionals, job seekers, educators, helping to master the techniques of cognitive representations of scientific problems, research papers, reports, theses, books and teaching aids.
- The introduction of cognitive writing in government: Presidential Administration, the Government, the State Duma, the Federation Council, the ministries and departments, regional government bodies.
- Creating cognitive buildings, neighborhoods, cities and territories for the intellectualization of the population.
- Processing of existing national and international standards, determining the order of production and visual presentation of any form of scientific, professional, and academic performance dioinformatsii, including computer, books and records; the creation of cognitive standards.
- Certification and certification of cognitive quality of information products and services, primarily dioyazykov, information technology, textbooks, manuals and so on. D. The organization of the international system of cognitive appraisal and certification.
- Development and implementation of new forms of intellectual property in science, engineering, management, economics, politics, ecology and other spheres of activity, to dramatically increase the power and the power of the human intellect, and thus ensure the survival of humanity and the sustainable future of civilization.
* * *
Intelligence, understood as a complete set of features of the brain, is the only means of illuminating the path of man in the darkness of the universe. It is the only tool available to the people to protect themselves from unwanted consequences of their planetary activities, the only tool that can save a civilization from growing systemic crisis (environmental, demographic, energy and so on. D.). However, the current level of mirointellekta too low, weak and inadequate to the task.Therefore, we must dramatically increase its capabilities. There is simply no other way.
Hence the slogan of the strategic intellectual initiative, “Sustainable development and prosperity of civilization – through intensification of intelligence!”