Drakon Book : Chapter 18 [English Translation]

Chapter 18

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… Language is one of the main tools or aids Imperfect thoughts … this gun case … prevents and destroys all confidence in its results.

John Stuart Mill

Between Scylla and Charybdis

In the history of artificial languages ​​can be divided into two periods. In the first stage (establishment of language Volapuk, Esperanto, and so on. D.) Set an ambitious task of building an international language of the world, designed to increase mutual understanding between people and nations. Unfortunately, due to the extreme complexity of the task and the lack of theoretical study attempt has failed – the mountain gave birth to a mouse. What is surprising: despite the failure of the project has caused public interest and received worldwide recognition. This fact indicates that even at that time the idea of ​​”language understanding” touches the nerve center of an important social need.

In a second step was taken a more realistic approach “on clothes stretch one’s legs.” The direction of the search was narrowed sharply, and the reduced scale of the problem is limited to particular tasks to establish formal programming languages. In this way, as is well known, achieved impressive successes.

Meanwhile, the problem continued to worsen and misunderstanding today entered a critical phase, which can be characterized as a “paralysis of understanding.” There is an urgent need to return again to the idea of ​​a universal language comprehension and understanding and critically rethink it. Apparently, a modern language for understanding should be based on a fundamentally different conceptual framework, which allows you a good hold and maneuver the ship a new project in the narrow strait between Scylla pipe “universality” (which crashed Volapuk and Esperanto) and the Charybdis of specialization (which turns language programming nobody understandable Egyptian hieroglyphics and thus unduly restricts their social base).

Escape the Scylla is quite simple – we just have to give up the idea of ​​an ambitious universal language (which is likely to build in principle, impossible) and to focus on the creation of private languages, each of which is useful in its field, which, however, should not be too narrow.

It is much harder to get rid of Charybdis language specialization (when the language is created “just for its”) and come up with a universal language, capable of satisfying the interests of the different groups. The challenge is to find a life-saving idea that would dramatically expand the bridgehead social language and make it useful for millions. It is necessary to turn the language understandable only to members of any one narrow caste (eg programmers), in language understanding for a wide range of knowledge workers and students.

Principles of structuring ACTIVITIES

To clarify the essence of the question, let us return once more to the structural programming. Theorem Bohm and Dzhakopini follows that the logical structure of the program can be expressed by a combination of a limited number of basic structures. This means that the idea of ​​the structural designs of the program gives the reader a much-needed compass. Making his way through the jungle of the program text, it becomes like a “third eye”: a partition of a complex program for the structural design makes it easier to understand and easier to work. In the language of ergonomics, this is achieved through the consolidation of operational units of perception 1.

The greatest disadvantage is not structured programming in the art, and social plane. The fact that this method helps to improve the mind of people a very small number, namely – programmers. All other knowledge workers do not have this “holiday” irrelevant and did not win.

Fortunately, this shortcoming can and should be eliminated, because the idea of structuring is universal and can be generalized to any activity related to any social and professional groups.

The principle of structuring activities. Any business activity, regardless of its nature, complexity, professional affiliation, social orientation, and the domain can be described by a limited number of structural designs that can be characterized as a logical invariants activities. As the latter are encouraged to use the visual design of structured programming, or that one and the same, the design of visual syntax tehnoyazyka dragon. Examples of this principle are explained in Chap. 13.

General conceptual scheme

Programming is a particular type of activity. This is historically the first type of activities to which the principle was applied structuring. Generalization of this principle to any activity we consider to be desired “saving idea” as an important step, which has a direct bearing on the main issue – the issue of improving the functioning of the mind. This conclusion is self-explanatory.

Fig. 138 is a diagram which allows to identify the eight sources (prerequisites), a joint analysis of which gives rise to “short circuit” of ideas, the consequence of which is the principle of structuring activities.

  1. The first source is taken in artificial intelligence division of knowledge into declarative and procedural.
  2. For our purposes, this scheme is subject to some changes (Fig. 138, section 2):
    • it is assumed that it is the written representation of knowledge intended for human visual perception;
    • are not entirely successful, the term “treatment” is replaced by the more familiar and widespread word “technology” (see. Sec. 3);
    • technological knowledge are divided into command and control (see. ch. 12).
  3. A third source is structured programming (Fig. 138, part 3).
  4. Further development of the structural ideas leads to a transition from text to structured programming visual (Fig. 138, Block 4), since the latter has numerous advantages, discussed in detail in Chap. 16.
  5. Fifth source are flowcharts that found widespread since the early days of programming.
  6. The next step of reasoning leads to the abandonment of the block diagrams and replacing them with a dragon design (Fig. 138, Block 6), which have undeniable advantages (see. Ch. 6-16).
  7. As a seventh source is numbered icons (Fig. 138, section 7).
  8. Finally, the last source is a generalized interpretation of the notion of “activities” (Fig. 138, Block 8), covering not only acts committed by people, but also the operations performed by machines. Last viewed as delegated activities, the performance of which the person requests the (delegate) designed their technical devices.

It is important to emphasize that tehnoyazyk DRAGON provides a single standard means for describing itself as a human and delegated (machine) activity. With this system it is possible to vision and analysis of the problems, because at the same drawing both types of action are shown interconnected in a single algorithm – as his alternate fragments.

The diagram in Fig. 138 named general conceptual scheme, as it sums up a significant part of the contents of the book, presents it in a concise form, shows a panorama of the main ideas and concepts of the relationship, it allows to visualize trace the reasoning and logic of thought.

Problems of activity in ergonomics

The two concepts: “algorithm” and “activities” represent two great countries that lie on different scientific continents separated by oceans and mutual alienation and distrust. These are two of the world (the world of mathematics and programming, and the world of ergonomics and human sciences), which is dominated by a different style of scientific thinking. These are two enormous field of very profound and subtle investigations, among which is necessary to build a bridge of understanding and strong with heavy two-way traffic of ideas. Construction of the bridge, we consider a generalization of the highest rank, closely linked with the problem of improving the work of the mind and is capable of paving the way for a powerful new scientific breakthroughs.

The category of activity is the most important in the ergonomic knowledge. Activities in ergonomics acts as:

  1. the subject of an objective scientific study;
  2. facility management;
  3. the subject of design and simulation;
  4. subject multidisciplinary assessment.

According to V. Munipova, research activities related to, inter alia:

  • the problem of construction and reconstruction jobs, the formation of a combination of individual transactions and actions constituting the integrated activity;
  • with the development of the scientific organization and safety, all the sciences that study labor rights in order to address important economic tasks – dramatically increasing productivity and quality of work.

Exploration activities in a large number of works. By the mid-60s have been developed methods algorithmization human operator performing the functions of monitoring and control of technological units (D. Ageikin A. Galaktionov). Over the years, studied the activity of air traffic controller (M. Gruzdev) Manager railway junction (Zavalishina D. and V. Pushkin), remote operator control of technological processes (D. Oshanin V. Venda), operational personnel of power plants (S. Hajiyev, K . Gurevich).

Developed an algorithmic approach to the analysis of the operator (A. Galaktionov, A. Chachkov). G. Zarakovskim formalized language was designed to record and analyze professiogram drivers and steering large ships.

The results of this field will advance to the creation of mathematical models, methods of quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness and reliability of the human operator to determine its load, to approach the important problems of engineering psychology – the distribution of functions between man and machine in the “man-machine”.

There have been developed various concepts and approaches to the design of the operator’s activity.

  • A systematic approach to the analysis and optimization of human-machine interaction (B. Lomov).
  • Psychophysiological and algorithmic analysis of (G. Zarakovsky).
  • Structural-layered concept of heuristic information processing operator (V. Rubakhin).
  • The principle of “inclusion” (Krylov).
  • Structural and algorithmic approach to the analysis and design activities (G. Sukhodolskiy).
  • Functional-structural theory (A. Guba).
  • Structurally-psychological concept (V. Venda).
  • The concept of the genesis of psychological operations (V. Shadrikov).
  • The concept of idealized structures activities (A. Galaktionov).

Analyzing the ergonomic problems of designing and modeling activities, we note a variety of different approaches and methods, among which occupies a worthy place algorithmic (procedural) approach. Unfortunately, existing methods of describing algorithms largely outdated and do not allow to fully identify all the advantages of this method. It seems that the use of language DRAGON as the standard for describing the structure of activity – in a reasonable combination with other methods – will make a significant step forward in solving many problems associated with the creation of modern man-machine systems.


Current science is similar to a labyrinth made up of cells, some of which are hermetically isolated from each other.Representatives of different disciplines at times as it were “not hear” each other. So today, more than ever, we need universally valid languages, suitable for all, capable of “crack” interdisciplinary barriers and enhance mutual understanding between different units of scientists. As an example, consider the “conflicting” statements of some experts in artificial intelligence (AI) and engineering psychology.

Specialists in AI: Down algorithmization!

In many cases it is useful to distinguish between two questions: What should be done? and how to do? Most supporters of AI defend the principle of priority of declarative knowledge, according to which a person is much easier to answer the question “what” than “how?” So they call to abandon the mandatory language (such as “how to”) and replace them with declarative languages ​​(languages “what”).

The advantage, according to them, because the programmer is much more convenient to give the definition of situations and formulate objectives, instead of all the details to describe the way to solve these problems. When declarative approach the programmer is not required to construct an algorithm that solves the problem, since the program changed its appearance and “will always be logically describe the task itself, not the process of decision.”

So why should abandon algorithms? This is for three reasons. First, the declarative description – it is a good (rational), the description, and procedural – poor (irrational), so “requirement of procedural description of the problem from the very beginning by means abandoning streamline problem.” Secondly, human brains are not suitable for the creation and understanding of algorithms that we (humans) “hardly compose algorithms, because this concept is unusual to us,” for “people’s actions did not seem to work the usual algorithms.” On this basis (and third), extremists of AI claim that soon declarative languages ​​will win a world-historic victory over procedural “scallywag”; last – the language of the accursed past, and declarative languages ​​winners – this, of course, “language of the future.”

Such, or approximately such arguments found in the works, if not all, the many experts in artificial intelligence, becoming a kind of common place, a kind of “creed” AI.

The question naturally arises whether these arguments conclusive and, if so, under what conditions these proofs are valid?

Engineering psychologists algorithmization activity – our salvation!

Unlike the majority of AI professionals ergonomists in no hurry to bring algorithms anathema. Why is that? In particular, because “algorithms are the only means of expression … the objective of the regulatory components of operator activity and initiative of action and interaction that is algorithmization are only components of the personal professional experience of skilled operators. So, remain inaccessible for the training of operating personnel for effectivization carrier and humanization of work. Algorithmization actions and interactions is the most important result and the basis for the remaining results of the psychological engineering design of operator activity.

Another example. A group of military ergonomists studying the problem of interaction of crew members of aircraft multi-aircraft equipment failure in flight. It turned out that about half of flight accidents occurring on multi planes due to failures in flight could be prevented by optimal interaction between the crew members. How to achieve optimal? The authors propose a method to improve the education and training of crews, stressing that the training “of considerable importance have forms and ways of presenting information to crew members on the order of their interaction.” According to studies the authors conclude that the most appropriate form of presentation of this information is “an algorithmic method” in which the diagram is presented in graphical form.

Educators: algorithmization – it’s good!

Although some teachers after R. Kowalski are active experiments on introduction in secondary schools Prolog, the majority of scientists working in the field of secondary education, apparently, are supporters of imperative languages. According to them, the development of algorithmic style of thinking students “is the main objective of the course of computer science” as a school course “should follow the science and procedural tradition is today the leading and most developed.”

Who is right: deklarativisty or imperativisty?

In our view, imperative and declarative approaches are not alternatives, but complementary: one range of tasks better suited first method of knowledge representation to another – the second one. Such a balanced position replaces extremism continues and begins to win more and more supporters.

In particular, V. Sergeev, analyzing “procedural and declarative controversy” makes the following conclusion: “It seems to us that these two approaches reveal the two sides are two ways of human thinking and some are optional in the sense in which the different views in the form of particles and waves are present in the principle of complementarity Bohr. “

Summarizing the above, we can offer a few comments.

  • Statements such as “peremptory methods irrational”, “man is easier to describe the problem than its solution process”, “people hardly make algorithms, because the very notion it is unusual” does not contain the necessary restrictive formulas and do not meet the criteria for scientific rigor. Simply put, they are unfounded and unsubstantiated. There is a large class of problems for which the said provisions fundamentally wrong.
  • The paradox is that artificial intelligence as a scientific discipline does not need the above invalid (not to say – absurd) statements, as real and universally recognized achievements of artificial intelligence are completely independent of this misleading verbal tinsel. Last reminds dust-track that ministers have forgotten to erase the golden statuette.
  • Although the argument of “declarative all good, all bad imperative” and its many variations are incorrect, however, in the period of “childhood” AI they have played a positive and catalytic role in bringing together the AI ​​specialist in the fight against the common “enemy imperative” and thus concentrating their attention on the pioneering idea of ​​declarative language. However, now that declarative problem is solved, there is no need to save the image of the mythical “imperative the enemy.” Today – in the era of maturity of artificial intelligence – the specified argument itself completely compromised and should be discarded. Moor has done his work, the Moor to go.

Ergonomic analysis of design activity

The social significance of language as a tool of DRAGON to describe the structure of activity is closely linked to the special role that the activities (as a concept and a social phenomenon) plays in the system of human culture.

According to V. Sagatovsky, “activity – it is a fundamental philosophical concept, comparable in its generality, the categories of social being and consciousness … This is a key concept for understanding the specifics” of the world of man. “Many books and articles that speak of the importance of the principle activities of the need to approach the activity, sometimes even proclaimed the idea of ​​a “general theory of activity.”

History, remarked classic is nothing but the activity of man pursuing his aims. Today presentation on the activities begin to change radically. What is the change?

For thousands of years human activity has not been designed and formed spontaneously. However, at the present stage acutely raises the question of design, modeling and formalization description of the activities that are useful in solving many problems.

The question of designing activity was first raised B. Lomov in 1967 as part of the engineering psychology, since the project activity is to act as a basis for solving all remaining tasks of building systems “man-machine”. In the first stage engineering psychology and ergonomics focused on the design of an operator (pilot, controller and so on. D.), As a profession operator became widespread and in some cases proved decisive. However, the operator “boom” could not last indefinitely. It became clear that an intensive study of the activities of the operator does not remove from the agenda the other necessary research, especially research activities of designers and engineers (B. Moliako, 1983).

Design activity – one of the most difficult types of intellectual creative labor. This activity is becoming increasingly important, as it affects the creation of new types of equipment, the development of complex socio-technical systems (eg, automated control systems), development of new technical and social projects and technologies, and so on. D. Improving the efficiency of the design of human activities due to the acceleration of technological progress involves the development of engineering and psychological means and methods of activating creativity designer with the general concepts of the theory of activity.

PITFALLS design activity

In many cases, the cause of industrial accidents and disasters are the design and construction defects. Equipment failures caused by them can be divided into two groups:

  1. fatal (which is impossible to predict in advance);
  2. other (let’s call them defects).

Fatal failures due to the fact that our knowledge is limited. Similar failures occur only when the research and design team was faced with a new, hitherto unknown facts or phenomena. Such cases we exclude from consideration because no court no. If science is not able to anticipate and prevent the negative consequences, there is a desperate situation when an accident may be inevitable.

The case is somewhat simplified by the fact that the failures and accidents often caused by non-fatal faults and defects .The term “failure” describes a situation when an accident does not result in an increment of scientific knowledge, because all the necessary information to prevent it was known in advance, but was not used.

Why is that? There are three reasons for this:

  • to avoid the defect and prevent the accident, the designer must compare and logically linked too many well-known facts, ie. e. to perform a tremendous amount of mental work is much greater than the real possibilities of his brain;
  • well-known facts are in the minds of different people, among whom there is no proper intellectual understanding and cooperation on the basis of well-established communication;
  • the designer lack of motivation to carry out the work, resulting in the irresponsibility and negligence (this case we do not consider, as today there are effective mechanisms for management of motivation).

The first two cases are of greatest interest, so that the cause of the defect is the lack of awareness and understanding. One of the ways to prevent defects – ergonomizatsiya science and design activity with the help of special tools that improve the work of the mind, all of whom recently took the language of dragons. Generalizing this idea, you should raise the question of a qualitatively new step in the development of ergonomic ideas and spread the concept of “project activity” on a complex creative activity.

The transition to evidence-based design of creative activities such as design activity – is a fundamentally new and extremely complex task that requires the creation of new theoretical tools. Errors are not allowed, as the unfortunate design of design activity can lead to serious negative consequences.

Many accidents are the primary cause of the disaster, and not just the man (human operator), who ran the technique at the time of the accident, but also other people who designed this imperfect technique and created enough organization and acceptable working conditions for performers.

In this regard, a number of theoretical problems, which are analyzed below by the example of the Chernobyl accident.

WHY exploded Chernobyl reactor?

The traditional approach to the analysis of the causes of the Chernobyl accident

According to the traditional view, the accident at Chernobyl Unit is due to several reasons:

  • scientific fallacy (were not disclosed and understood physical characteristics that existed prior to the accident of RBMK reactor core, consisting of the large positive void coefficient of reactivity and spatial instability of the neutron flux);
  • structural defect of reactor control and protection;
  • Error operatives who broke the rules and brought the reactor into a state in which the system of protection (due to design defects mentioned) could not prevent the explosion.

Legitimately ask whether these explanations exhaustive? Do they provide an opportunity to identify the “true” culprit of the Chernobyl disaster? Do they allow – if you look at the problem from the standpoint of a particular case, even an important and tragic, and a system approach to the analysis of the global challenges posed by the increasing complexity of steady civilization processes, – to create a science-based Dependable and mechanisms to prevent large-scale disasters and accidents? In our opinion, these questions should be answered in the negative.

Can the activities of dependable?

The history of science and technology – is not only the successes and achievements. This originated in the mists of a continuous chain of errors, mistakes and omissions, the negative effects are gradually increased, until finally he reached the dramatic scale of the Chernobyl incident. According to experts, “Chernobyl accident – the greatest disaster in the history of the Earth, including the history of culture, but it is yet to realize humanity. The elimination of all its consequences is not possible, because they are eternal, now just started the process of comprehension … It will be a turning point in the development of modern technological civilization … “. Due to the problem of Chernobyl safe development of civilization has gained unprecedented sharpness and stimulated the search for new approaches to its study.

In analyzing the problem of civilization security has to come from the fact that in the process of large-scale research and development, to create complex objects and systems that may be involved hundreds of thousands of people, and there are so many failures of human activity, adverse combination of which could lead to a crash of the object or environmental disaster. The question arises: is it possible to solve the problem at all? Can we have a guarantee of successful business management? Does human activity have Dependable?

The concept of dependability (dependability) offered Algirdas Avizhenis and Jean-Claude Lapri applied to the analysis of computer technology. According to the concept developed by them, Dependability of – “this property is the computer system that allows you to reasonably rely on the performance of the services for which it is intended.”

In our opinion, the concept of dependability is fruitful. Moreover, we believe it is possible to significantly expand the scope of the concept and apply it to any ergatic systems (involving people), ie. E. To use the concept of dependability for the analysis of all types of business people, including the most complex forms of intellectual activity, including activities managers, scientists and experts. Under this approach, we can say that Dependability of – this property ergatic system can reasonably rely on the performance of the tasks for which it is intended.

The principle of the design of dependable activity

For failure or malfunction of any technical or social system are the people who investigated it, analyzed, designed, created, initiated, tested, incorporated into a larger system and exploited. But even more important to understand that there is (or at least should be), and the other, in a sense, “higher” layer people. It is about those who are called to educate and train people from the previous layer, from the early years to form their personality, improve skills and explicit or implicit design their activities.

Currently, the most difficult cases no human activity is not specifically designed, it folds spontaneously – as an empirical generalization of experience, tradition and common sense of certain employees and social groups. On the other hand, we know that common sense works well only in relatively simple situations, but in difficult cases to rely on common sense is dangerous – we need a scientific approach to the problem. It follows a number of conclusions, which together can be described as the principle of the design of dependable operations .

  • As the civilized world – a product of human activity, to the extent any industrial accidents and social incidents – this is a consequence of various malfunctions and defects of human activity.
  • Faults and defects of human activity – is (directly or indirectly) the product of human errors, miscalculations, mistakes and misunderstandings, inability to organize effective intelligent interaction.
  • In order to eliminate faults and defects of human activity (or at least reduce their probability), you must learn how to design activities. This requires the design theory of human action , which is to ensure effective and coordinated actions large and small human groups. This theory should explain the nature of human errors, mistakes, mistakes, misunderstandings and provide a method to reduce their likelihood. The main task of the theory – improve the quality of activities in such a way that, without prejudice to the freedom of the individual and human rights, at the same time to make it effective and Dependable.

The theory of dependable design activity should cover all types of business people: scientific, technical, industrial, political, administrative, training activities and so. D.

Dependability of the collective worker

We introduce the concept of “collective worker” to refer to all people directly or indirectly involved in the creation of large-scale object, such as nuclear power plants. We assume that the employee is the aggregate of dependable , if error, mistakes and errors of individuals to identify and eliminate, neutralize or prevent, and therefore can not have a negative impact on the efficiency and quality of the final results of the collective worker.

In reliability theory, the problem of how to build a reliable system from unreliable elements? With regard to ergatic systems (consisting of people), this problem is formulated as follows: how to design a total of dependable worker from untrusted (negarantosposobnyh) individuals?

The concept of “collective worker” covers two groups of people, to denote that you can use conditional terms “total design” and “total artist”. The first group includes:

  1. Authors: researchers, developers and designers, such as designers, engineers, mathematicians and programmers;
  2. educators, ergonomists, psychologists;
  3. politicians, officials, corporate executives, agencies, institutions, regions and governments who decide on the implementation of the project and its location on a given territory.

The second group includes production workers, embodying the idea of ​​scientists and engineers in social projects or “metal”, builders and installers, as well as operators and repairers dealing with the operation and maintenance of the created object.

The analysis allows us to introduce the following system of postulates.

  1. It is unacceptable to design technical objects and social systems so that the erroneous actions of the performers could lead to a serious accident or incident.
  2. And if the postulate is violated, then the total design mistake. In other words, the very possibility that erroneous action performers can lead to serious trouble, indicates an error designers.
  3. In the implementation of innovations should use such methods in which the safety of the population, economy and nature provides a guaranteed (or high probability), regardless of errors performers and designers.

The chief evil – poorly designed work of creative personnel

Thus, if a cursory analysis of the focus is a mistake artist, then the depth of the analysis is placed in the focus of the research bug designers who failed to foresee and prevent the error performer.

If a superficial analysis examines the conditions and means of labor, as well as physiological and other characteristics of the artist (eg, nuclear power plant operator), which led to his error, then the depth of the analysis examines the conditions and means of labor, as well as physiological and other characteristics of designers, which resulted for a total error of the designer. This fact of the inability to foresee and prevent the error Executive considered an error aggregate designer.

It is easy to understand that the transition from the surface to the deep analysis, from design activities artists to design activities of designers (t. E. Researchers, designers, engineers, programmers, mathematicians, ergonomists, leaders, teachers, and so on. D.) Means a fundamental change in the traditional approach the development of the fundamental principles of efficiency and safety. The advantage of the new approach is that it allows you to do the activities of creative personnel (designers) and operating personnel (operators) satisfies the criteria of dependability and thereby provide a new level of safety and efficiency of the civilized world.

Hence the conclusion: for any industrial accidents and social catastrophes root of all evil – not in a bad technique, not a bad ideology, politics and technology, not in bad company and not in error grassroots staff (all the effects and not the cause), and poorly designed human activities artists. When such a formulation of the question (and it is not hard to figure out is radically different from traditional) to science is placed fundamentally new task: building on the achievements of the whole complex of the human sciences to develop an integrated theory of man, the human brain and human intelligence, new and more effective methods of improving the work mind, and based on them to create a theory of dependable design activities of creative personnel.

The need to develop this theory due to the sharp complexity of activities. If earlier the creative workers can act on the basis of their knowledge, experience, intuition and common sense, but now – in the unprecedented complexity of civilization processes and the resulting unprecedented increase in the price of errors creative personnel – under these conditions, the traditional approaches to the creative activity of mankind should recognize inadequate , outdated, extremely dangerous and unacceptable.

The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters

Dependability of collective human activity essentially depends on their collective mind, and this conclusion is valid both in the local and global scale.

Locally, the fact of the Chernobyl accident demonstrates the ineffectiveness of collective intelligence participants in the creation and operation of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, about their failure to anticipate and prevent the negative consequences of their actions. Globally, the Chernobyl accident demonstrates the weakness of global collective intelligence (t. E. The total intelligence of all mankind), in advance of his inability to identify the threat, vulnerability, and a convention to understand the national borders in the face of radiation hazards, the inability to join forces to create the necessary safeguards and protect the planet from the negative effects of scientific and technological progress.

The effectiveness of the collective mind of scientists, experts and officials united in a large collection of international and national artists and other groups consisting of many scientific, engineering, technology, design, production, management, supervision, training and other organizations that solve the general problem depends not only the individual intelligence of people, but also the ability to overcome the fragmentation of individual and collective intelligence, from an intellectual understanding and the efficiency of the exchange of knowledge between individuals and groups, on the mechanisms by which individual intelligence specialist connected to a common collective intellectual resources and industry, as well as to the general Resources of world science, t. e. to the aggregate intelligence of mankind. An important role is played by a proper choice of visual language means understanding, representation, formalization and transfer of knowledge. If these funds are to be effective, the effectiveness of collective intelligence can be high, otherwise – low.

Today, life presents new, much higher demands on the human mind, the intellect. It must be remembered: The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters. Weakness of the mind has created the Chernobyl disaster.

Intensification of intelligence and programming languages

Developed in this book, the concept of improving the work of the mind is based on the hypothesis of maximizing the productivity of the brain (see. Ch. 3). Based on this hypothesis, we assume that the main (though not the only) means for dependability assurance activities and prevent future technical and social Chernobyl – the improvement of the human intellect. However, some authors consider the problem of improving intelligence flawed and far-fetched, because “in the history of human civilization is not observed any noticeable improvement of the human intellect.”

In our view, such an objection is based on a misunderstanding: we are not talking about genetically defined prerequisites of thinking (the human genome, as scientists assume, not really changed over the past thousands of years), and on the mechanisms of social inheritance and transfer of knowledge and related acquired intelligence capabilities, which can be significantly strengthened.

We have undertaken the study of the problem of improving the work of the mind is the development of a long-standing scientific tradition, in which in the absence of an established terminology of different scientists use following similar in meaning, though not completely identical concepts and expressions: “expanding the ability of the mind” ( Descartes ), “improving our reasoning, “” facilitate the process of our thinking “( Leibniz ); “Strengthening the human mind” ( Schroeder), “relieved of thinking and giving it greater precision and strength” ( Frege ), “improved understanding” ( Wertheimer ), “increased mental capacity” ( Bruner ), “enhancing the natural mental processes” ( Wertsch ) “increase the efficiency of the functioning of the human brain,” “increase the efficiency of the human mind”, “strengthening znanieporozhdayuschih, creative functions of the natural human intelligence,” “quality intensification of the mass of scientific work” ( Zenkin ).

It is appropriate to cite the opinion of Academician A. Ershov: “Man is immeasurably strengthen their intelligence, if a part of his nature will make the ability to plan their actions to develop common rules and how they apply to a particular situation, to organize these rules into a conscious and expressibility structure – in short, will become programmer “. It is clear however, that the task of improving the work of the mind must be addressed not only for programmers, but also to millions of others.

It is known that “the programmer thinks in terms of who gives it at the disposal of the programming language.” According to experts, the effect of the language “regardless of our desires affects our way of thinking.” The language has a profound impact “on inventive thinking skills and ability,” and “reigning in the existing language disorder” is directly reflected in the style and efficiency.

What determines the extent to which may enhance their intelligence programmer? This face is highly regulated by his personal experience and intellectual characteristics of those languages, which he uses at work. Meanwhile, without exception, well-known programming languages ​​along with numerous advantages are significant drawback – a caste languages ​​of limited use. They are unable to provide the necessary ennobling effect on the intellectual life of society, to overcome the fragmentation of individual intelligence and ensure the necessary strengthening of the power of the collective mind of the world, corresponding to the new requirements.

IMPROVING THE MIND – the number one problem

Along with the class of programming languages ​​(which, of course, should continue to function in the culture) is necessary to create a fundamentally new class of languages ​​to indicate which proposed the term “superyazyki intellectual communication” (for short – superyazyki).

One of the most dramatic contradictions of the current phase of the development of civilization is as follows.On the one hand, the weakness of reason threatens the fate of civilization, and science has no answer to the question: how to get the necessary intelligence to gain salvation? On the other hand, the enormous reserves of intelligence of the human brain is still not used because people are “exploited” his brain badly, wrong, not at all, as required by its “design” (ergonomic and neurobiological) characteristics.

So, why do we need superyazyki? To resolve this contradiction, to overcome the current impasse by the intelligent detection and evidence-based use of hidden reserves of the brain.

Social success of any artificial language, its rootedness in the culture, the possibility of large-scale expansion of its scope and international recognition depends on accessibility and usefulness of the language. Usefulness superyazykov determined that they should facilitate the understanding and understanding, provide a strategic intellectual breakthrough that allows qualitatively increase the mental power of civilization.

Can you solve a similar problem at all? Strictly speaking, an evidence answer to this question is no. However, we can make some assumptions. Writing language – a system of notation and the notation is “a means of thinking.” Analyzing the problem of improving the notations, the famous English logician, mathematician and philosopher Alfred North Whitehead writes: “By freeing the brain from all unnecessary work, a good notation allows it to focus on more complex problems and as a result increases the mental power of civilization.”

In summary, we can make a number of comments.

  • The ability or inability of mankind to solve vital global, local and other issues directly related to the effectiveness of the Universal Mind and its local components, the quality of the multimedia presentation and formalization of knowledge, language understanding and mutual funds that meet the criteria of ultrahigh understanding ergonomic criteria Descartes.
  • Chernobyl and other incidents clearly revealed the helplessness of the current forms of planetary intelligence, and raised the question of the development of a new generation of intelligent tools – superyazykov able to provide a new level of the human mind.
  • Traditional methods of technocratic development of large-scale industrial projects and social innovation is fully exhausted its possibilities, they are outdated and should be replaced by a new social engineering techniques that involve a systematic approach to designing sociosphere, technosphere and Dependability of human activity.


  1. Programming Languages ​​play an important role in human culture, being a component of the computer revolution, which, in turn, is a necessary condition for the transition to an information society. Along with this, there is a growing need for superyazykah that are designed to dramatically improve the mind, ease of understanding and mutual understanding, a more effective intellectual interaction between people and ultimately – improve human activity (both theoretical and practical).
  2. Some superyazyki can serve as programming languages, while others – not. In the role of superyazykov can act only ergonomic visual languages.
  3. The problem of creating superyazykov gained urgency in recent years as revealed rigid connection between intelligence and survival and the failure of traditional methods of intellectual work.
  4. It was also found that programming languages ​​can not provide the required increase of the intellectual power of human groups (local and global). Because of its nature and caste narrowness of the social base of programming languages ​​is very little effect on the improvement in collaboration across the intelligence community, the growth of the power of social intelligence. In fact, they have demonstrated their unsuitability for the task.
  5. Superyazyki have to do what can not be programming languages: to promote strategic intellectual breakthrough, as much as possible to increase the mental power of humanity, to provide a new level of awareness and understanding, and on this basis – Dependability of planetary and local human activities.
  6. The first and, unfortunately, the only example of a superyazyka tehnoyazyk dragon. Create superyazykov rest – in the future. They may appear as a result of evolution (in the direction of greater clarity, accessibility and validity) graphic languages ​​newest versions RAD methodology and CASE-technologies. There are other options. DRAGON – this is just the initial link in the chain superyazykov, which must grow.
  7. Language DRAGON – this is the first consciously made an ergonomic step in language development. Ergonomic – means, firstly, aimed at improving the work of the mind, and secondly, based on the power of the science of human factors – ergonomics and cognitive science. The above can be summarized in the form of a brief slogan: DRAGON – this ergonomic revolution “yazykostroenii.”
  8. Using ergonomics yazykostroenii this science opens up new prospects inspiring, reveals failure of the current level of ergonomic knowledge and requires further development of its ideas.
  9. Using Dragon as the standard for describing the structure of the activities (both human and delegated) is regarded as tentative step towards solving the major problems of civilization – the design of dependable operations.


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