Drakon Book : Chapter 15 [English Translation]

Chapter 15

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Descriptions of the visual language syntax DRAGON

… Visibility, saying ordinary language, in one day teaches us with greater ease and strength to what can not teach typically repeated at least a thousand times, as own observation … goes hand in hand with the theoretical definition.

Galileo Galilei


Thesis 1. Icons – visual letters that form visual language alphabet DRAGON shown in Fig. 1.

Thesis 2. The blank-blank-primitive, and Silhouette – the figures shown in Fig. 115.

Preliminary thesis 3. Primitive – a figure obtained by converting the blank-primitive finite number of steps with a fixed set of operations (listed below in the thesis 36).

Preliminary thesis 4. Silhouette – the figure obtained by converting the blank silhouette of a finite number of steps po¬moschyu fixed set of operations (listed below in the thesis 37).

Thesis 5. Dragon Diagram – a general term to refer to the primitive and silhouette.


Thesis 6. Skewer block – scheme of the dragon, which has one input and one output on top of the bottom, containing one or more icons, wherein:

  • input and output lie on a vertical path through which passes from the inlet to the outlet;
  • through every icon that is part of the skewer-block passes at least one path from the inlet to the outlet;
  • skewer of the block may include any icons except for the following: title, end the formal parameters, loop silhouette.

Thesis 7. Main vertical skewer block – vertical connecting its input and output.

The rest of the vertically if they are found to the right of the main one. All skewer vertically-oriented downwards block except chains used for looping cycle.

Operation “ENTER THE ATOM”

Thesis 8. Atoms – the figure shown in Fig. 122. These figures are used in the operation of “putting the atom.” Every atom is a skewer-block.

Thesis 9. Valence point – the point belonging to the workpiece or a dragon pattern, which is allowed to produce a gap connecting the line to insert a gap in the atom using the “input atom.”

Thesis 10. Entry of an atom – conversion of the workpiece or dragon scheme is as follows: Trunk made ​​a break point in the valence and this place is inserted atom, as shown in Fig. 116.

For more information about atoms

Thesis 11. Atoms are divided into simple and complex. Simple atom consists of a single icon, the composite contains at least two (Fig. 122).

Thesis 12. Functional atom – a simple atom is not empty operator. These are all simple atoms other than a comment.

Thesis 13. Multiple atoms are empty and non-empty. In a non-empty there is at least one functional atom. In an empty no.

Thesis 14. The fully completed dragon scheme should not be a single empty atom (as the latter is equivalent to a null statement). Empty atoms may be used at all stages of the construction of a dragon-circuit except the final.

Critical and neutral points

Thesis 15. Valence points are divided into neutral and critical.

Thesis 16. The point is called neutral if the use of operation “entering atom” to this point it is possible, but not mandatory.In contrast, the critical point requires a mandatory input of the atom.

Thesis 17. The stretching points are in the blanks and atoms. These are shown in Fig. 115 and 122, where the neutral points marked by open circles, critical – fatty points.

Thesis 18. If a figure (blank or atom) is one critical point, it is sure to enter the atom is made ​​to it; The critical point is destroyed. If the figure has two critical points, mandatory input of the atom is only one of them; The critical point at which the input is produced is destroyed and the other critical point is neutralized, t. e. becomes neutral.

Thesis 19. The complete set covers the critical points:

  • critical points in the empty atoms;
  • one critical point in the workpiece-entity;
  • one critical point in the workpiece silhouette.

Thesis 20. The complete set covers the neutral points:

  • input and output points atoms;
  • two interior points in the atom “cycle WAIT”;
  • one point in the workpiece silhouette;
  • points obtained by neutralization of the critical points.

Terms of Use operation “entering the atom” in the construction of a dragon-circuit

Thesis 21. Operation “entering the atom” is used to input simple and only empty atoms, as well as cycle wait. Entering a non-empty atom is carried out in two stages; first entered the empty atom, then its critical points is introduced functional atom.

U of I n n e. Enter the empty atom – a very convenient building reception. It allows for the richness and diversity dragon created schemes and used in their configurations. Among the latter, a special role is played by the so-called “matryoshka”.

Thesis 22. Matryoshka – a figure obtained by entering an empty atom in a critical point blank atom, as well as through multiple investments empty and non-empty atoms into each other (Fig. 123).

Thesis 23. Matryoshka is empty (if it contains all the atoms are empty), partially empty (if it has both empty and non-empty atoms) and a non-empty (if all the atoms of the non-empty). See. Fig. 124-126.

U of I n n e. After the user to effectively use the empty atoms to give the dragon pattern of the desired configuration, it must remove them from the circuit.

Thesis 24. To eliminate the empty atoms of the Dragon scheme, there are two ways:

  • turn an empty non-empty atom;
  • convert the empty atom in an empty doll, and then turn it into a non-empty.

Thesis 25. Solving of dragon schemes empty atoms automatically leads to the destruction of all the critical points.


Thesis 26. Liana – part dragon circuit having one input and one output, referred to as “the beginning of the vine” and “end of creepers’, respectively. The beginning of the vines can be any output icons “issue” and “variant”, if he (output) is not a loop cycle. The end point of the vine is considered a merger in which the lower part of the vine is connected to the other line (the end of the vines can not be a linear input icon).

Thesis 27. Liana can be loaded (if it contains the icon) and unloaded (if it’s just a line).

Transplant vines

Thesis 28. Transplanting vines – convert dragon scheme carried out in four steps.

Step 1. Made from vines gap end point of attachment (Fig. 119).

Step 2: End of the vines using vertical and horizontal lines is connected to any of the valence point where vine can reach without crossing with other lines (Fig. 119). It is prohibited:

  • forming a second entrance to the branch (error “Siamese twins” – see. fig. 127);
  • to form a new cycle;
  • create a second entrance to the cycle.

However, it allowed to build a new path from the middle of the normal cycle to a single entry in this cycle, creating a visual equivalent of continue operator C language (see. Fig. 90, Example 7, and Fig. 41).

Step 3. Produced equivalent conversion topology dragon scheme to vine did not have to bend upward (Fig. 128) and adhered to the rules of construction skewer block (Fig. 129).

Step 4. Eliminates unnecessary breaks lines (Fig. 130).

Grounding vines

Thesis 29. Grounding vines – convert dragon scheme carried out in four steps.

Step 1. Made from vines gap end point of attachment (Fig. 120).

Step 2: End of the vines using a vertical line attached to any part of the lower horizontal line silhouette, where it can reach without crossing other lines.

Step 3. Made a break line at the bottom of the vines and is inserted in the fracture icon “address” (Fig. 120).

Step 4. Eliminates unnecessary breaks lines.


Thesis 30. Lateral connection – conversion dragon scheme by which the scheme added icon “synchronizer” or “formal parameters”.

Icon “synchronizer” is located to the left of the other icons and connected with it the horizontal process. A list of icons that are being lateral connection of the synchronizer shown in Fig. 2 (p. 8-20).

Icon “formal parameters” is located to the right of the icon “title” and is connected with it horizontal process, as shown in Fig. 2 (n. 1).

Thesis 31. Addition of options – convert dragon scheme by which the atom in the “switch” adds another icon “option.” The number of additions is not more than 14, so that the maximum number of options equal to the switch 16.

Thesis 32. Addition of branches – the transformation of the silhouette, which adds another branch. Including the addition of no more than 14, so that the maximum number of branches in the silhouette is 16.

Thesis 33. Removing the last branch – the transformation of the silhouette, which removes the rightmost branch. This technique is used to describe the infinite parallel process, as exemplified in Fig. 88 and 89.

Thesis 34. Removal of the end of the primitive – primitive conversion, which removes the icon of the “end”. It is necessary to describe the parallel endless process.

Thesis 35. Auxiliary input – transformation of the silhouette, with which adds another icon “title” that is placed over any icon of the “branch name” (except for the left) and connected with it the vertical shoots. Thus on the top horizontal line silhouette paint rightward arrow, as shown in the example of Fig. 84 on the right.

O g r a n h n e. If there is a cycle of browse Never connect an additional header to the middle of the cycle of browse.


Thesis 36. Any well-formed dragon scheme “primitive” is the result of converting the blank-entity with a finite number of steps: entering the atom, transplant vines, adding options, lateral connection, the removal of the end entity.

Thesis 37. Any well-formed dragon scheme “Silhouette” is the result of converting the blank silhouette with a finite number of steps: entering the atom, adding branches, grafting vines, ground creeper, adding options, lateral connection, removing the last branch, an auxiliary input.

U of I n n e. Abstracts 36 and 37 can be considered as the final definition of “primitive” and “Silhouette”.


  1. The above 37 theses (together with drawings, to which they refer) give an unambiguous description of the visual syntax that is, if desired, can be summarized as strict mathematical language.
  2. This description is sufficient to build the dragon redak¬tora capable to solve two problems. First, draw (in accordance with the user) any abstract dragon diagram belonging to the set of well-formed (meeting the requirements of visual syntax) dragon schemes. Secondly, to create in your computer’s memory a formal description of the scheme, suitable (after filling out the appropriate text icons operators) for broadcast in object code or execution of the program in interpreted mode.


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