Drakon Book : Chapter 13 [English translation]

Chapter 13

Page HistoryLast edited by PBworks 8 years, 5 months ago

Human activity and formalization of knowledge:


The process of formalization of professional knowledge … – historically new form of intellectual activity.

Gregory Gromov


Professional knowledge embrace the totality of the information that people use in their professional activities. We will limit this notion from two sides. First, we exclude from consideration professional activity in the field of religion, art, sports and other spheres, focusing on the scientific, technical, industrial, administrative, economic, medical, educational, and similar business activities. Secondly, we are interested in only the professional knowledge that it is expedient to some extent formalized and presented in writing on paper or screen.

Professional knowledge must eventually lead to the desired (theoretical or practical) result and meet many other requirements. For example, the technology of hardening dagger (Fig. 101), although it allows to obtain the desired result, but with a modern point of view, looks wild, absurd and inhuman. The reasons are two: the dawn of mankind moral standards were underdeveloped, and most importantly – said the technology is not based on scientific knowledge and the mythological explanatory diagrams. The ancient “technology” were genuinely convinced that the power of the slave “moves” in the dagger and improves its fighting qualities.

In this chapter, we will understand the formalization of knowledge representation of human knowledge in the formal or partially formal language. Having said earlier (Ch. 3), excluded from the analysis declarative professional knowledge and confine the problem formalization process (mandatory) knowledge.

The plan further discussion follows. We will look at some examples of the different, very different from each other areas of professional activity and show that the language of the Dragon “everywhere done” – it allows you to effectively formalize the imperative of knowledge in many, though not in all situations. What gives? Since the process of formalization of knowledge is extremely light, it is available for almost any man who knows his business. This means that with the advent of language DRAGON each specialist acquires new features:

  • it can formalize their knowledge by itself, without the help of knowledge engineers or programmers, t. e. to take advantage of all the benefits of formalization of knowledge;
  • he can express his thoughts in his own professional language, but simply formalized form.

As a result, the expert receives a powerful tool for business communication, for thanks to DRAGON his own professional language somehow miraculously became very similar to languages ​​of other professional specialties.


Consider the task of the school in Chemistry for 10th grade. The teacher takes one of six chemical fertilizers and puts it in a flask. With the flask – unknown. This may be ammonium nitrate, sodium sulfate, ammonium superphosphate, sylvinite or potassium salt. It is necessary to perform the experiment to learn what kind of material is in the flask.

The experience made in two stages. First there are the preparatory steps:

  1. Put the fertilizer in three vessels.
  2. a first vessel add sulfuric acid H 2 SO 4.
  3. In the second vessel add a solution of barium chloride VaSl
  4. The third vessel to add the alkali.

After this, the results of an unknown substance is determined on the basis of Table. 3.

The guidelines for the course “Informatics” for the secondary school is recommended to use this example to familiarize students with the principle of the professional expert systems. For this purpose, students are invited to explore a simplified learning expert system in the form of a program in BASIC. The functioning of the educational expert system is implemented in the dialogue and the student system. The expert system asks the student a series of questions, analyzing the answers and compares it with the stored facts. The system produces a logical conclusion and forms an answer to a user question – in this case, according to the name of the student fertilizer.

Name of the substance
By reaction with
H 2 SO 4
Ammonium nitrate
White crystals
Brown Gas
The smell of ammonia
Sodium nitrate
Colorless crystals
Brown Gas
The smell of ammonia
Ammonium sulfate
Light gray crystals
The white precipitate
Light gray powder
The white precipitate
Pink crystals
Potash salt
Colorless crystals

Training Expert System (program in BASIC)

10 REM Recognition fertilizer

20 PRINT «The interaction of sulfuric acid released brown gas?”

30 INPUT A $

40 IF A $ = “yes” THEN GOSUB 100 ELSE GOSUB 200

50 PRINT «This fertilizer -“; $ X

60 END

100 REM interaction with alkali

110 INPUT «The interaction with the alkali solution there is a smell of ammonia?”; The $

120 IF B $ = “yes” THEN X $ = “ammonium nitrate” ELSE X $ = “sodium nitrate”


200 REM reacted with a solution of barium chloride

210 INPUT «In the reaction with a solution of barium chloride and acetic acid, a white precipitate? ‘C $

220 IF C $ = “yes” THEN GOSUB 300 ELSE GOSUB 400


300 REM reacting with an alkali solution

310 INPUT «The interaction with the alkali solution there is a smell of ammonia?»; D $

320 IF D $ = “yes” THEN X $ = “ammonium sulfate” ELSE X $ = “superphosphate”


400 REM pink crystals

410 NPUT «Pink crystals?”; $ E

420 IF E $ = “yes” THEN X $ = “Silvinit” ELSE X $ = “potassium salt”



A better version of the same problem is shown in Fig. 102. Training Expert dragon system works as follows. After the launch of the operating point of the process begins to move the icon “title” to the icon of the “end”. In the course of its movement icons and connecting lines are lit and flashing on the screen brighter light, highlighting the traveled part of the way. When the process has reached the icon, the question “When interacting with H 2 SO 4 is released brown gas?”, This icon flashes, attracting the attention and demanding a response. In response to this event, the student brings the cursor to the correct answer (yes or no), and click the mouse button. The icon stops flashing and (if you answer “yes”) illuminates the path that leads to the icon, the question “When interacting with the alkali there is a smell of ammonia?”, Which flashes.Further events are repeated, until the display lights up the name of the desired fertilizer.

Thus, the dragon-system performs the same functions as the system in BASIC. However, it has several advantages.

  • Program in BASIC contains 790 characters (not counting spaces), of which only 488 characters (60%) describe the problem in natural language, and the remaining 302 (40%) are a set of characters – the mysterious text in the poultry programming language that normal people (not programmers) perceive with displeasure. The dragon scheme in Fig. 102 grievance disappears, “bird abracadabra” is completely absent, and all the functions are carried out nonetheless. It becomes obvious that the “software hieroglyphs” are parasitic, redundant and even harmful, because they do not work for users (who do not need them), and to themselves. In this case, the essence of ergonomizatsii is the complete renunciation of the use of “bird abracadabra”.
  • Another advantage lies in the systematic approach to the problem of simultanizatsii. In terms of the process of knowledge, the problem of recognition of the fertilizer consists of three parts:
    1. formulation of the problem;
    2. description of the action with the analyte and reagents;
    3. logical analysis of experimental results.

    The lack of programs in BASIC that it covers only the last part and “hide from the reader,” the first two. Dragon system is free from this defect: the first branch given formulation of the problem (the icon “comment”) and the description of the sequence of manual manipulation (four icons of “action”), the second branch demonstrates a logical analysis and response.

  • It is extremely important that all three parts of the problem are presented viewer in one visual field. This ensures simultanizatsiya perception and improve the functioning of the mind.
  • The program in BASIC – an example of bad (neergonomichnoy) expert system that communicates with the user through a narrow “keyhole” through which is seen a single question, and nothing else. Thus the BASIC system does not allow a person to reach one eye at a time, and logical parts, and the overall picture of inference actually turning user of a stepchild or a fool, which hide all the fun.
  • It is well known that the user is not indifferent to how the expert system comes to its decision. In order to meet such wishes, modern expert systems help users not only make decisions, but also reveal the motives of their decision through the explanation. Moreover, experts believe that the presence or absence in the explanatory function of this system depends on the right to be called an expert. For this reason, many systems allow the user to ask the question “Why?”, And then “reveal map” and in verbal form shows the user the course of his reasoning. That’s good, but not enough. In some applications, the ideal solution can be called such, for which the system presents the user with a panorama of possible inferences, which stands (brightness or color) route-specific chain of reasoning leading to the selected account. DRAGON system realizes this is the ideal approach (Fig. 102).


Fig. 103 is a simplified description of the process of manufacturing canned fruit stone fruit (by technology E. Sveshnikov).The actual process can be very complex. Typically, it is described how the process head containing a large number of inserts. As an example, in the head process shown in Fig. 103 shows the insertion of “Making syrup marinade and” disclosed in Fig. 104.

In the real process technology frequent simultaneous processes. For their image language DRAGON applied not only an icon of “parallel process”, but also other products (tailored production processes), which in this book are not considered.

Dragon-circuit manufacturing processes can be applied in the following cases:

  • visual creation of posters that give a holistic view of the process in all its polysyllabic and used as demonstration materials; while in the icon “comment” can be placed drawings, photographs, diagrams installations, machines, networks of pipelines and other equipment;
  • Issue of technical documentation;
  • design and simulation of technological processes;
  • creating a visual database of process technology;
  • creation of expert systems for the design of processes, as well as simulators for operatives;
  • production of albums and catalogs of processes for training or advertising; You can recommend an album page paper format A3, meaning that the original models albums preparing a laser printer A3.


James Martin stresses the need to distinguish between two concepts: a technique (technique) and methodology(methodology).

Method – a method of performing a single operation. For example, the rules of charting data streams – a technique.

Systems development methodology covers a set of tasks (operations) that must be addressed in the process of creating the system. There are many problems, the solution of which is used a lot of techniques. Yield one problem often is the input to another. Using computers in the development of systems, it is desirable to fully automate the tasks that lend themselves to automation, and the other to perform an automated way, when a person is working with a computer. Flow knowledge transmitted from one task to the next, it should be within the computerized tool whenever possible. RAD methodology uses computerized tools and manual methods reasonably related to each other in order to achieve two objectives: high speed and high quality development. The methodology defines what is each task as it is successful, what troubles and dangers are possible in the process and how avoid them.


It is sometimes argued that the language DRAGON good description of simple tasks and is not suitable for image challenges. This is not true. DRAGON is specifically designed to facilitate the formalization of a wide range of tasks, including the most complex. Moreover, the more complex the problem, the greater the benefit of using the language of dragons.

To see this, consider the design methodology of the nuclear reactor. Clearly, this is a daunting, “prohibitive” complexity problem. A holistic view of the methodology is presented in Fig. 105. Dragon diagram in Fig. 105 contains a large number of inserts to be identified in this case it is advisable to introduce the term algorithm concept. For example, the second and fourth branch in Fig. There are 105 icons insert “Calculation of stationary parameters of the primary circuit of a nuclear reactor” and “Calculation of reactivity accidents of the nuclear reactor.” The corresponding algorithms, the concept shown in Fig. And 1 106 107.

Fig. 105-107 convincingly demonstrate that any arbitrarily complex methodology can be represented by a simple and uniform reception, which can be described as a good decomposition. The top level of the hierarchy shown in Fig. 105, can be regarded as the top of a giant pyramid, which offers a look at the problem from a bird’s flight. It lists all the algorithms concept of the second level, which in our imaginary pyramid are one step “closer to the ground.” Considering the ability of the second level (shown in Fig. 106 and 107), it is easy to notice that they are specified algorithms concept of the third level, which are closer to the ground, that is. E. Provide a more detailed acquaintance with the problem. Gradually descending from the top of the pyramid to its base, we are seeing a consistent decomposition of a complex problem into smaller and details that eventually (when we go down “to the level of the earth”) will give a comprehensive and complete description of the methodology as a peremptory challenges. If necessary, it can be supplemented by the relevant declarative.

An important advantage is the fact that the language is not dependent on the level of the hierarchy – it is one and the same, and at the top and at the bottom of the pyramid. This achieves a dramatic simplification of the description of the tasks of any complexity; in the end, “boggles the mind” becomes a problem in a relatively simple, clear and intuitive.

As far as the author knows, there is still virtually no effective ergonomic visual means to simultaneously solve two problems: formalization and visualization methodologies. For this reason, a holistic view of the methodology, as deterministic multi-step process with a beginning and an end, in fact was not available a wide range of professionals and students, while remaining the property of a small group of superspetsialistov that “all keep in mind.” Because of this complex project other participants were forced to play the role of the creative cogs of the body that need to know your “hearth”, but that “not necessary” to have a panoramic vision of a holistic process in all its polysyllabic. Language DRAGON leads to an important step to eliminate this drawback, more effectively collaborate on complex project participants and more reasonable use of their collective intellectual resources of the brain.

The system “man-machine”

In this section 1 the expediency of using the language for a formalized description DRAGON systems “man-machine”.Consider for example the development of “helicopter crew.” Description of the system is necessary to have the design of the helicopter at the stage of conceptual design to achieve three objectives.

Firstly, for ergonomic analysis of “man-machine” in the selection of options:

  • distribution of functions between man and machine;
  • sharing among members of the crew of the helicopter;
  • the composition of the equipment;
  • manning.

Secondly, to provide information on the work of experts of various subsystems of the system “man-machine” in the normal and emergency conditions. Third, to train operators to work with the system.

Currently, in the design of aircraft description of the algorithm of the system “man-machine” made in text form in a document called the “Flight Manual”, the form of which is determined the state standard. This document is issued too late – after the end of the detailed design and is usually dated to the beginning of the flight tests. It is a statement of the existing algorithms in the design of the system “man-machine” and is not intended to achieve the first two objectives. In addition, the text form of the document does not meet the principles of simultaneous perception, making it difficult to use for staff training.

In this connection, an attempt was made to use language to solve the problem of the dragon. In particular, it developed a detailed dragon diagram describing the operation of the system, “the crew of helicopter” in case of emergency in the air – the fire of the right engine. Analysis of the results leads to the conclusion about the usefulness of such a description: it is combined with the requirements for mathematical modeling of the system “man-machine”, the definition of the time structure of activities of the members of the crew, the use of microstructural analysis of activity and so on. D. It can be argued that the creation of the library dragon -schemes designed system “man-machine” – a necessary stage of detailed ergonomic analysis when creating a manned aircraft.


The deeper the human mind penetrates the secrets of living matter, the clearer it becomes that living beings often behave as biomachines information, processing information using bioalgoritmov. Experience shows that biological algorithms are very similar to the most common algorithms, which we constantly come across in the art. As such, the language of the dragon can be a convenient tool for expression and accumulation of knowledge about the information processes in living organisms. For illustration, we quote from the well-known biological book, describing one of such algorithms.

“We consider the changes occurring in the body toads in the breeding season. Eyes toad perceive light and transmit this information to the brain that controls the duration of daylight is increasing. The hypothalamus sends a releasing pituitary relevant factors and pituitary begins to secrete a variety of hormones in the blood, including FSH and LH. When the testes and ovaries “discover” their presence in the blood, they begin to grow in size, to produce gametes and allocate own hormones, among them – sex: testosterone and estrogen. In response to the sex hormones, the brain sends nerve impulses to the muscles – the animal begins to search for a place to breed and mate. So, thanks to the complex interplay of the senses, nerves, brain, muscles and animal endocrine glands adequately responds to the change of the season – the coming of spring. “

Description of the algorithm in terms DRAGON shown in Fig. 108 (so as not to bore the reader cumbersome biological terms, the author of several simplified the text and provided him with a sense of humor).

It should be specially emphasized that the real biological algorithms are extremely complex. Traditional biological literature textual presentation of algorithmic knowledge introduces unnecessary difficulties for readers and is outdated. According to the author, the language of the dragon can provide substantial assistance to biologists. Creating albums of paper and computer libraries biological dragon schemes will make it possible to improve the presentation of biological knowledge, to make it more rigorous and clear, will identify and eliminate algorithmic gaps in knowledge will help strengthen the position of Information Biology and facilitate further studies of the mysterious mechanism of functioning of living organisms.

Medical imaging Algorithms

Doctors rarely pronounce the word “algorithm”. It’s a pity! – Because the algorithms are a big part of medical knowledge.Fig.109 submitted to the familiar to almost every example – measurement of blood pressure (which doctors refer to the solemn words, “sphygmomanometer”). This algorithm is obtained by accurate reproduction of instructions for manual sphygmomanometers of clinical prevention, prepared by the US Committee on preventive medicine. Algorithmic descriptions are full of many medical management, for example, describe the immunological methods, clinical laboratory diagnostics, microbiological instructions for identification of microorganisms and more. Generally speaking, the process of inspection and treatment is always a certain sequence, thus it can be regarded as a process or algorithm.

According to the author, albums and computer training library dragon medical schemes would bring tangible benefits in medical research, medical practice and medical education, not to mention facilitating mutual understanding between doctors and a medical programmers.

Other examples Visualization

Here are a few examples to prove the versatility and “omnivorous” language of dragons and demonstrate its applicability in various fields of human activity. Figure 110 illustrates the use of language to represent grammar rules. Fig. 111 shows an example of the elementary rules of formalizing the analysis of poems.

The following example was born from a small school “adventure.” Being present in the classroom in one of the Moscow schools, the author observed the boy’s anguish, solves the problem, as shown in the icon-comment Fig. 112. It was felt that he knows all the formulas and guesses on the overall solution, though he did not develop the overall picture. He could not clearly break the task into individual steps and build an ordered sequence of them, leading to the victory. Why is that?What prevented him? Glancing over his shoulder, the author saw in a notebook “picturesque daub”. The correct formula jumped on the page playing leapfrog everything was crossed out and turned upside down. In short, it was a bad, neergonomichnaya, disordered visual scene. No wonder the guy completely confused.

Pondering the situation, the author has come to the following assumptions. First, you need to ergonomizirovat visual scene, giving it the shape of a dragon diagram. Second, the student should be specially trained so that he remembered visual image dragon scheme. Third, the solution should be to fill the empty cells dragon scheme; while recording solutions, willy-nilly will orderly and “leapfrog” becomes impossible. Fourth, the need to teach students not only to break the course of solutions for individual steps (actions), but also for them to come up with clear, concise titles. Fifth, it should be explained that these titles should be written in the icons “branch name” and “comment”.

Based on these assumptions, the author in consultation with the teacher portrayed the decision as shown in Fig. 112. What is the difference between the solution in Fig. 112 from the traditional recording? We select the three most important differences.

  • The visual scene has a very clear structure. She ordered both vertically and horizontally.
  • Without exception, all the stages of making and verbal formulas are clarifying the headlines. The last are not recorded anywhere, but in special framed, each “knows his place.”
  • Provided simultaneity of perception: in one visual field are: 1) The condition of the problem; 2) the decision; 3) response.

Dragon diagram in Fig. 113 was born under similar circumstances.

Most of the examples in Fig. 101-113 are adapted describing extremely simple, even primitive algorithms. Using a “toy” example due to the fact that the real situation is too complicated and “not fit” in the book.

As an illustration, we give the name of the real problems, and to describe the solutions which should be used tehnoyazyk.

  • The calculation of the angle of sight at the rate and pitch angle of sight to determine the angular position of the line of sight of the rocket in flight.
  • The sequence of work and the steps undertaken to create objects of helicopters.
  • Creating a unified system of seismological observation and prediction of earthquakes.
  • The algorithm of the control system of the orbiter “Buran” mode propel spacecraft.
  • Description of the functions of intellectual automated system of analysis and design documentation.
  • Heat toroidal cores of iron-nickel alloys.
  • Installation Products (rocket attached to it with the spacecraft) to trigger the launch pad.
  • The calculation of the electron trajectories in static electric and magnetic fields.
  • Processing information from the device registration eclipse of the sun.
  • Management sprinkler system of the reactor compartment of nuclear power plants.
  • Check multilayer printed circuit boards.
  • The study of the effects of radiation and high-frequency effects on the body of the rabbit.
  • Embroidery on the sewing machine.
  • Low-waste technology for processing beets.

The greatest human difficulties arise in complex activities when the human mind when confronted with large and varied tasks, begins to falter, resulting in all sorts of errors, defects, flaws and omissions, mutual misunderstanding, confusion, tightening of work and disruptions planned dates . Tehnoyazyk DRAGON enables weaken or eliminate such troubles. Will significantly simplify the presentation of the problem, making it clear and foreseeable, Dragon brings substantial benefits, significantly increases productivity, reduces costs significantly.


Let’s try to look at Fig. 101-113 from a different angle. Almost all of these figures are specific examples describe the structure of activities in different fields: metal working, chemical, nuclear power engineering, medicine, and so on. D.

Figures 101-113 describe various processes, activities and events, which at first glance have nothing to do. If the content of the drawings presented in the form text description, overall, the invariant part of these processes and events seems to disappear, becoming hidden, implicit, elusive. Figuratively speaking, the language DRAGON tears invisible cap with this invariant, make it visible, glaring. In this case, the invariant is the structure activity . More precise said. Any activity can be described by the dragon diagram. This abstract dragon scheme is a logical invariant activity .

The ability of abstraction, the opportunity to see one in a different – an important ability of the human mind. Tools, to develop this capacity, helping to increase the “power of the mind.”

It is known that the process of learning and educational environment teach man to extract knowledge from its own activities, to comprehend the principles of their actions and be guided by them in new situations. Or, as they say educators, carry the transfer of knowledge, which occupies an important place in the educational process and practical life. Language DRAGON, formalizing the structure of activity, allows for easy transfer of knowledge and skills, identifying logical invariants activities, fixing them in the mind and stimulating a deeper comprehension of the principles and structure of human action.

Carefully analyzing Fig. 101-113, abstracting from the content of activities and concentrating on its structure and formal aspects of description, we find “similarities in different” and specific examples we see that tehnoyazyk DRAGON is really suitable to describe the structure of activity in a wide variety, different from each Other areas of activity. The advantage is the use of a single form for the presentation of technological (mandatory) describe the structure of knowledge and activity.

For completeness, we note that tehnoyazyk DRAGON allows to describe two classes of processes:

  • activity (Fig. 101-107, 109-113);
  • the natural processes occurring in living organisms (Fig. 108).

DO WE NEED A standard for describing activities?

And in our country, and abroad, today there is no single standard for the description of the activities (the structure of activity), which in many cases leads to confusion and confusion. Offsuit and variegated description taken in different sectors, often have many shortcomings, contain gaps and ambiguities. They are not formalized, darling, awkward to use and difficult to understand. Often describing non-existent, and those that are – are outdated and do not correspond to reality. Despite the poor quality of most of the descriptions, the complexity of their creation is very high. All of this brings significant difficulties in work, significantly reduces productivity, creates unnecessary obstacles to communication and understanding between the specialists of different professions.

It would be desirable to establish a single standard for describing the structure of activity, equipped with computer support and designed for gradual implementation in all sectors and subject areas where its application can have a positive effect. In our view, the development of the standard it is advisable to take as a basis tehnoyazyk dragon.

The trouble is that the traditional concept of “activity” and “algorithm” is very useful in themselves, unfortunately, ill-suited to the task. In an effort to improve matters, we will give three new definitions, which, without claiming to be rigorous (in this case it is not necessary), reveal the deep connection between the concepts of “activity”, “algorithm” and “tehnoyazyk.”

The activities – the sequence of physical and information actions based on the necessary restrictions (conditions) and allows to obtain the desired result in a finite number of steps (actions).

Algorithm – description of the structure of activity.

Tehnoyazyk – a language for describing the structure of activity.


  1. To reveal the underlying structure of human knowledge, it is necessary to divide them into technological (mandatory) and declarative. Such dismemberment we tend to be regarded as a general division of knowledge.
  2. The value of technology (mandatory) is the knowledge that they are closely related to one of the most fundamental concepts of social sciences and humanities – activities.
  3. Technological (mandatory) knowledge detect, fix in the mind and the structure of objectified activity.
  4. An important feature of the activities is the existence of the underlying logic of the invariants (structural designs) is expressed using the concept of “abstract dragon diagram.”
  5. Traditional ways of describing the activities do not reveal the underlying invariants;past are disguised, hidden, hidden from the reader. This circumstance makes it difficult to transfer the knowledge and skills play an important role in education and practical life.
  6. Tehnoyazyk as a special tool specifically created to describe the structure of activity, allows to detect and expose logical invariants of activities to make them explicit, visible, accessible to all people.
  7. The formalization of knowledge – labor productivity played an important role (see. Ch. 3). If this work is too complex (productivity is low), the formalization can only be carried out by specially trained elite professionals;avtoformalizatsiya under such conditions is almost impossible. Conversely, if the struggle to alleviate, formalization becomes feasible for almost everyone – only in this case are the necessary prerequisites for avtoformalizatsii.
  8. Tehnoyazyk DRAGON dramatically simplifies the formalization of labor and increases productivity. Consequently, tehnoyazyk suitable for efficient avtoformalizatsii technological knowledge.
  9. It is advisable to establish a single inter-industry standard for describing the structure of activity. The standard should be based on tehnoyazyk DRAGON, viewed as a means to describe the structure of activity by avtoformalizatsii technological knowledge.


Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

one × 2 =

Leave a Reply