Drakon Book : Chapter 1 [English Translation]

Chapter 1

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On the approaches to the new language

In some sections of the book, I went beyond the theories in which I can claim to have any expertise. I ask those whose reserved lands I invaded, forgive me for my rashness. And if some trophies, I write about, exist only in my imagination, then, at least, is poaching does not cause any damage to the rightful owners, while a random stranger can sometimes see something that is both unexpected and real.

George Paget Thomson


DRAGON – this algorithmic language, has an unusual feature: it is both a language to describe the structure of activity, language comprehension and understanding of the language of intellect. As a programming language, it satisfies the requirements of mathematical rigor, enabling from the original text definitely get the object code (machine code for the computer.) But that’s not the point. When you create a Dragon focused on human factors, improving the visibility and clarity of technical and social projects and technologies that improve the ergonomics of algorithms that not only in words but in deeds to turn Dragon into the language to improve the mind, language comprehension and understanding.

Although outwardly very similar to DRAGON conventional flow charts and programs, in fact, he is an original design. The closest functional analog circuits should be considered DRAGON action (action diagrams) and charts activity (activity diagrams).

For careful readers who love details counterparts DRAGON – in varying degrees – can be called a more distant “relatives.”These include: Nessie-Schneiderman charts, HOS-diagrams, “grinprint”, SPD-chart of the company NEC, PAD-scheme company Hitachi, trees, and decision tables, the decomposition scheme, schemes based language SDL and its derivatives, BLS system created by A. Smolyaninov from St. Petersburg Electrotechnical University, R-circuit I. Velbitskogo, -circuit V. Prokhorov, etc. d.

WHAT IS THE SECRET OF THE DRAGON? - In the cognitive approach

However, compared with the counterparts in this case, unproductive, because it did not reveal the most significant feature of the dragon, which is called “cognitive approach”. The term “cognitive” (Cognitive) is still not widespread among designers, developers, engineers, and programmers, but it is a secret password of a powerful new scientific order, or rather, the banner of two new, rapidly developing areas in psychology and the science of intelligence known as cognitive psychology and cognitive science 1.

One of the goals of these disciplines is to reveal the hidden reserves of the human brain, increase the productivity of creative knowledge workers.

The real question is the following. Developers of technical and social projects, knowledge workers – are living people who have brain capabilities which, although large, but nevertheless is not limitless. Thus, the problem of design – is not only technical, but also human, cognitive, t. E. A cognitive problem.

Under the cognitive factor in this book refers to the cognitive, intellectual, mental, creative aspects of the work of scientists, professionals and students. The more complex the object of technical and social planning, the more important to focus on the need for careful consideration of the cognitive characteristics of human activity. Academician Simonov stresses that developers of systems “is extremely important to know the rules, following which the living brain perceives, processes, records and uses the newly obtained information. Details of the rules identified in the experiment provides cognitive psychology. “

Using these rules provides a practical result – increase the productivity of mental work.

Why people are not interested own brain?

In the last two decades of neurobiological and psychological studies have yielded new and very important information about how the brain works. They open the way for a revolutionary transformation of intellectual work, creating the preconditions for a radical increase its znanieporozhdayuschey creative productivity. In fact, we are on the threshold of a strategic reform of intellectual work, promising inclusion in the creative work of powerful new reserves of the human brain and intelligence. But these results because of the known cross-disciplinary barriers have not yet become the property of the designers, engineers, and programmers who develop complex technical and social systems. As a result, a paradoxical situation. We explain the situation as an example.

Programming engage people with the brain. But so far, the languages, methods and theory of programming built without taking into account the design of the brain. It is impossible to maximize the productivity of creative brain programmers, not because of its design. Consequently, the traditional ways of creating languages ​​and programming technologies that ignore the design of the brain, are outdated and inefficient.

I think that this conclusion is valid in other cases. Ignoring the laws of the brain, lack of attention to issues of cognitive results

to unpleasant consequences: the mutual incomprehension between co-complex projects, serious errors in scientific knowledge, a major scientific and technical miscalculations, the elimination of which requires significant material costs (related to constructional modifications costly and time-consuming rework software), as well as a noticeable reduction of the resulting productivity developers and other members of the technical and social projects.

The science of human factors is called ergonomics. Cognitive problems – an important part of the ergonomics. To single out a group of cognitive ergonomics, among other issues, sometimes uses the term “cognitive ergonomics” and “cognitive ergonomics problems.”


By criterion “understandability algorithms”?

This book has a purely practical nature. It will be shown that the cognitive approach – it is a working method that gives useful benefits: better understandability of algorithms and programs, projects and technologies, increasing the productivity of complex intellectual work. We will try to prove this thesis, gradually revealing the features of the language of dragons.

As with all other languages, the dragon is based on mathematics and logic. But beyond that, he carefully takes into account the cognitive questions. Thanks to the systematic use of cognitive-ergonomic methods of DRAGON has gained unique ergonomic features. We can assume that in the future, DRAGON can claim the title of champion of the criterion of “comprehensibility of algorithms and programs” (in the classroom imperative languages) 1.

DRAGON can be defined as a shared visual language for describing the structure of activity, for organizing, structuring, visual presentation and formalization of the mandatory knowledge, as well as for planning, programming, simulation and training. It is the universal language of interdisciplinary business world, used to describe the scientific, technical, medical, biological, economic, social, educational and other problems. DRAGON allows you to organize and present a solution to any arbitrarily complex imperative (procedural, active, technological, prescription, algorithmic) problems in the form of visual drawings made on the basis of “look – and immediately got it!”

Humanity language DRAGON, striving to create maximum comfort for the human brain, all-round concern for improving the productivity of creative personnel allows us to hope that the dragon will get the widest application in the economy, business, defense, science and education. Using not just visual, and very visual presentation of knowledge, facilitating the work of the brain, Dragon provides a marked increase in productivity of intellectual labor.

At the core is the idea of ​​language DRAGON cognitive knowledge formalization, which allows to combine the rigor of logical-mathematical formalization with accurate cognitive (cognitive) characteristics of the person. The result is dramatically simplify and facilitate the description of the structure of activity, formalization of the professional knowledge of experts, standardize it and make it suitable for mass practical use. This equally applies to both the computer and the “beskompyuternoy” human intellectual activity.

Thus, the main purpose of language DRAGON – to provide a quantum leap in increasing the productivity of complex intellectual work by increasing the intellectual capacity of the human brain, detect and better utilization of the reserves of the human intellect, cognitive prerequisites for the creation of a significant increase in the efficiency of information technology.


Language equally covers four categories of individuals:

  • people, did not know (or slightly familiar) programming and computer engineering: mechanical, electrical, kompleksnikov, instrument operators, testers, physicists, chemists, geologists, biologists, doctors, agronomists, economists, lawyers, psychologists, and so on. etc .;
  • for professional programmers, mathematicians and developers of computer technology, including experts in operating systems, system and application programming, and microprogramming (for personal, universal, control and on-board computers);
  • for pupils and students;
  • at many levels of managers who want a minimum of time to understand the essence of complex problems.

List of tasks solved with the help


Language of the dragon can be used for the following tasks:

  • description of the structure of human activity;
  • a visual representation of knowledge in all the mandatory fields of economy, science and education;
  • description of the conceptual solutions and imperative models;
  • design of algorithms and programs;
  • development of algorithms and programs;
  • design processes;
  • A description of any technology (industrial, agricultural, medical, educational, administrative, and so on. d.);
  • Description of the design process;
  • the description of the functioning of discrete systems and devices, including intelligent systems;
  • description of the initial data for the development of computer-aided design and automation of scientific research;
  • description of the process for solving mathematical problems;
  • description of the dialogue and interaction of the human operator and the machine (control panel);
  • description of the process validation and troubleshooting;
  • diagnostic problem solving in all subject areas;
  • Firmware development;
  • description of the functioning of organizations and businesses;
  • avtoformalizatsiya professional knowledge of scientists, engineers, mathematicians, doctors, lawyers, agronomists, psychologists, operators, and so on. etc .;
  • the solution of educational problems: skills training algorithmization, programming and avtoformalizatsii knowledge in the shortest possible time.

As already mentioned, the functional analogue of the DRAGON are circuit diagrams of actions and activities. DRAGON is able to perform all the functions of the latter (the reverse is not true). Therefore, the list goes on to include the problems solved by action schemes. This will describe some of the features of a dragon with the help of terms specific to American literature:

  • a strategic review of corporate functions (strategic overview of corporate functions);
  • the description of the logical relationships between processes (logical relationship among processes);
  • description of the enlarged structure of programs (overall program structure);
  • detailed description of the program logic (detailed program logic);
  • complete decomposition programs (ultimate decomposition), from the enlarged details of logic and ending code that is equally useful for both top-down design (top-down design), and bottom-up (bottom-up design);
  • program design to the last moment can be carried out regardless of the language, and only at the last stage, the transition to the desired language;
  • end-user training, encourages them to analyze and design a detailed logic process (detailed process logic);
  • description of the procedures of organizational management (management procedures);
  • description of computer methodologies (computer methodologies);
  • description of the methodologies of information technology (methodologies of information engineering).

As can be seen from this list, the dragon has a universal property, proving useful for a wide range of diverse applications.With this DRAGON serves the universal language of business communication and understanding for professionals in different specialties. In addition, Dragon greatly facilitates the process of formalization of knowledge, opening up new opportunities to increase the level of automation in the design and operation of complex objects.


  1. The traditional aims and methods of creating artificial languages, in particular languages, should be recognized in many ways outdated.
  2. Recent research in neuroscience, psychology, cognitive science and ergonomics provided new and extremely valuable information about the functioning of the brain, which can and should be used to develop a new generation of languages ​​in order to increase the productivity of the human brain.
  3. Currently, there is no deliberate strategy aimed at eliminating barriers to cross-cutting designed to bring development to equip a new generation of artificial languages ​​in-depth knowledge in the field of human sciences, human factors and human intelligence. This shortcoming should be eliminated as soon as possible.
  4. The concept of artificial languages ​​of the new generation based on an interdisciplinary approach and upends traditional notions of artificial languages, and the appointment of a set of priority requirements to them. It gives priority to humanitarian issues and the requirements that need to be properly detailed.

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