I don't know of a specific disorder, although I wouldn't be
surprised. In learning Russian, I am having a devil of a time
figuring out the proper vowels when I hear a word. Is it o, or
a, is it ya, ye or yo, ir it i or oi? yet, constanants, I have
no trouble with.
So, if there is a real disorder, it wouldn't surprise me considering
that it's not all that easy. [I'm functionally deaf in one ear (left - its
a 'tin ear') and the good ear only goes up to 5000 Hertz, and Russian,
being a language with a humungous range, I believe from 100 hrz up
to 9000 hrz, I am probably missing out on a good portion of it.
Compare it to French, which uses all of the subtlties between
1000 and 2000 hertz, if I remember correctly, and that's it.