Choice. Concept requires choice and assertion (whether a speech act or in the mind).
degrees of freedom is another way to look at it. But still, if you’re defining (creating a shape, drawing a line around, creating a definition), it’s an event.
“In other words, category features have unequal influence on determining category membership.”
“After a series of impressive experiments, Keil(1989) realized predicate-term relationships could be used to infer the ontological categories people are committed to. “
“To provide a theoretical explanation for concepts and how they change, the triangulation model brings together key attributes of prototypes, exemplars, theories, Bayesian learning, ontological categories, and the causal model theory. “
In a rebuttal to Piaget’s cognitive development notion of “concrete -> abstract” thinking:
“Therefore, it is conceptual differences, not abstract reasoning abilities, that distinguish the judgements of children from adults. As for how to discover these conceptual differences, Carey recommends “that our deepest ontological commitments are to be analyzed in terms of our theories of the world” (Carey, 1985, p. 171). According to this view, conceptual change is the reorganization of ontological categories through differentiation, the splitting of categories, or coalescence, the merging of categories. “
“The point here is not to say there are no differences between experts and novices or adults and children , but rather to uncover less obvious ontological effects. As evidenced by patterns in predicate usage and development, children sometimes as young as pre school and often in kindergarten demonstrate ontological commitments in their claims about which predicates span a given term (Keil 1989) .
These ontological commitments imply that children are not solely focused on characteristic or surface features. Once again, in cases where child reasoning is different than adults,
it is not their cognitive structure or strategies that are different; it is primarily their theoretical knowledge or lack thereof which drives these effects. “
YES! Thinks like I do. Took long enough to find this.
“The Triangulation Model.
What are concepts?
A concept is a theory of a category .
Categories are a set of items and concepts store the constraints used to delineate category membership.
Specifically, concepts are theoretical categories based on exemplars, abstractions (e.g. prototypes), and causal relationships. Insofar as our prior knowledge is theoretical, it is also malleable.
Theoretical knowledge can change when triangulated with observed evidence and hypothetical knowledge. A hypothesis can be proffered without any evidence. Observations can be checked for similarity without a hypothesis. But neither alone can change our mind. As for the mind itself, I am not precisely sure what it is. At the very least, it contains a likelihood calculator which requires three input parameters: theoretical knowledge, hypothetical knowledge, and observational evidence. “
M. Ryan Massey, 11-9-2017? I like your dissertation so far.
Future research, your mentors and advisors:
Graduate Advisor, Keith W. Miller
It’s refreshing as heck to show conceptual-change-as-process.
Double-loop learning graphs it as intentions but this model is the most concise I’ve seen. (and THANK YOU for knocking down Piaget and Vygotsky alike so thoroughly yet kindly, M. Ryan Massey.
“A concept is a theory of a category.”
August 2013, I did an experiment. I took the largest available English thesaurus, Mobysaurus, and cross-linked repeatedly to winnow the connections down as far as I could, to make it as general as possible without any overlap.
To my surprise, I ended up with 5 categories.
But: categories OF WHAT? What were the 5 concepts?
I sort of had a theory. Whole, Opposition, Mixed/Confused, Skip/Detailed and “whisp of a blush of what might never have been once”.
But I wasn’t certain. I’m still not. But after reading M. Ryan Massey’s words: “”A concept is a theory of a category”, which was supported by a lot of evidence first, it’s a relief.
I had categories without a theory. So, I couldn’t form concepts.
I simply had results from an experiment which revealed a pattern. Now at least I know I’m not nuts.