chatGPT says there’s no real world examples of states that exactly reflect a “voluntarist protectionist state” but suggests Switzerland, Nordic countries (Norway, Sweden and Finland) and the Dutch poldermodel.
YouChat suggests Japan, the United States and China.
There are no real-world examples of a state that fits the exact definition of a “voluntarist-protectionist state.” However, some countries have elements of both voluntarism and protectionism in their political systems, including:
Switzerland, where citizens have a high degree of personal freedom and independence, but also have strong protections for individual rights and a robust welfare system.
Nordic countries such as Norway, Sweden, and Finland, which have mixed economies that balance individual freedoms with a strong welfare state and protections for individual rights.
The Netherlands, which is sometimes seen as a good example of a poldermodel, a system of consensus-based decision-making that balances the interests of various groups. The poldermodel has elements of both voluntarism and protectionism, as it allows for individual freedoms while also seeking to protect the rights of various groups.
Some real world examples of voluntarist-protectionist states include Japan, the United States, and China. Japan has long used protectionist policies to protect its domestic industries, allowing them to be more competitive in foreign markets. The United States has employed both protectionist and voluntarist policies, such as tariffs, subsidies, and quotas, in order to protect domestic industries from foreign competition. China has also employed both protectionist and voluntarist policies, in order to protect its domestic industry and promote economic growth.