Categories are from a C Martindale From 1976 and from the same author in 1990, something I’m reading next:
Martindale, C. (1990). The clockwork muse: The predictability of artistic change. Basic Books.
What determines the evolution of styles in poetry, painting, music, and architecture? Are there universal laws of art history to which even Shakespeare, Beethoven, and Picasso were subject? In this highly original and provocative book, cognitive psychologist Colin Martindale challenges conventional theories that seek to explain changes in the arts as the results of political, religious, or social forces. “Social forces do not cause change in art: they distort it,” he writes. Martindale argues that it is the pressure for novelty that shapes individual artistic careers and trends, whether in literature, music, or the visual arts.
This sweeping survey of such diverse art forms as modern French poetry, American short stories, classic Greek vases, Japanese prints, Italian operas, and Gothic cathedrals reveals how the need for novelty—the rule that rules must be broken—exerts a relentless, measurable pressure that drives the arts in new directions. Through the use of computer models and experimental simulations, Martindale explores the psychological factors involved in producing novel responses and he traces stylistic changes that derive from this need for novelty. For example, he details the movement from the simple and classic to the complex and grotesque found in a variety of artistic disciplines and he charts the increasing reliance on the unpredictable in most artistic domains. While focusing on objective evidence for the theory, the book encompasses everything from experiments with naive observers (for example, nursery school children) to the work of critic Harold Bloom. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)