Ah ha! The register transfer level – I was looking for you.
combinational logic has no memory.
“A synchronous circuit consists of two kinds of elements: registers and combinational logic. Registers (usually implemented as D flip-flops) synchronize the circuit’s operation to the edges of the clock signal, and are the only elements in the circuit that have memory properties.”
“Serious computer and digital hardware bugs caused by metastability have a fascinating social history. Many engineers have refused to believe that a bistable device can enter into a state that is neither true nor false and has a positive probability that it will remain indefinite for any given period of time, ”