It’s not certainty, Naveed. Certainty is the realm of religion.
Rather, it’s having methodologies to navigate uncertainty.
You can credit Science for all of it if you like, but I’d credit a practical ingenuity. The motivations are different. Curiousity sometimes. Profit motive sometimes. Military power sometimes.
All used different methodologies to navigate uncertainty to turn ideas into things that function.
If anything, Engineering even moreso than theories. Pushing ahead through uncertainty.
We’re certain about the past. Uncertain about the future. They were uncertain about the future when they embarked on those tasks.
Did any of them KNOW what would be a success or failure?
Were they CERTAIN?
An attitude of certainty will lead to stagnation.
We saw it happen with religious thinking.
I don’t want to see that same stagnation happen with science or engineering or human creativity as well.