A circular causality of intentionality

A circular causality of intentionality is presented by Walter J Freeman in 1999 that is similar to the Perceptual Control Theory (PCT) but does not mention it.

“Circular causality explains intentionality in terms of “action-perception cycles” (Merleau-Ponty, 1945) and affordances (Gibson, 1979), in which each perception concomitantly is the outcome of a preceding action and the condition for a following action. Dewey (1914) phrased the same idea in different words; an organism does not react to a stimulus but acts into it and incorporates it. That which is perceived already exists in the perceiver, because it is posited by the action of search and is actualized in the fulfillment of expectation. The unity of the cycle is reflected in the impossibility of defining a moving instant of ‘now’ in subjective time, as an object is conceived under linear causality. The Cartesian distinction between subject and object does not appear, because they are joined by assimilation in a seamless flow. “


This is in opposition to the standard “cause-effect” model, or rather that the cause-effect model is inadequate.circular-causality


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