2: Next Level Deeper: “”The Hierarchy of Human Cognition and Behavior” by Kenneth Udut and ChatGPT” Here Kenneth Udut and ChatGPT go deeper in exploring a hypothetical textbook outline

2: Next Level Deeper: “”The Hierarchy of Human Cognition and Behavior” by Kenneth Udut and ChatGPT” Here Kenneth Udut and ChatGPT go deeper in exploring a hypothetical textbook outline about a view of human cognition and physiology based on Embodied Cognition, moving from most concrete to most abstract in a hierarchy. Part 1 is here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f8MpwyQ_nVE – an overview of the subtopics and further subtopics drilled down deeper in this video. The outline for this is too big to contain in this location, which I was able to do in the other video. However, here is a link to the full text, formatted properly:

1. Developmental Processes.
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I. Developmental processes.
A. Fetal development.
B. Infant development.
C. Childhood development.
D. Adolescent development.
E. Adult development.
F. Aging.
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2. Physiological Processes.
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I. Physiological processes.
A. Respiratory system.
B. Cardiovascular system.
C. Endocrine system.
D. Nervous system.
E. Digestive system.
F. Urinary system.
G. Reproductive system.
H. Immune system.
I. Muscular system.
J. Skeletal system.
K. Integumentary system (skin, hair, nails).
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3. Sensory Processes.
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I. Sensory organs and pathways.
A. Sight.
1. Retina.
2. Optic nerve.
3. Visual cortex.
B. Hearing.
1. Ear.
2. Auditory nerve.
3. Auditory cortex.
C. Taste.
1. Taste buds.
2. Taste receptors.
3. Gustatory cortex.
D. Smell.
1. Olfactory bulbs.
2. Olfactory nerve.
3. Olfactory cortex.
E. Touch.
1. Sensory receptors.
2. Sensory neurons.
3. Somatosensory cortex.
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II. Sensory thresholds.
A. Absolute threshold.
B. Difference threshold.
C. Signal-to-noise ratio.
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III. Sensory adaptation.
A. Decrease in sensitivity to a constant stimulus over time.
B. Can occur in any sensory system.
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IV. Sensory integration.
A. Combination of information from multiple sensory modalities.
B. Occurs in the brain’s sensory integration areas, such as the insula and the posterior parietal cortex.
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V. Perceptual constancies.
A. Tendency to perceive the same object as having consistent size, shape, and color despite changes in the sensory input.
B. Examples include size constancy, shape constancy, and color constancy.
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4. Cognitive Functions.
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I. Attention.
A. Definition and types of attention.
B. Factors that influence attention.
C. The role of attention in perception and learning.
D. Attention disorders and treatment options.
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II. Memory.
A. Definition and types of memory.
B. The role of memory in learning and behavior.
C. Factors that influence memory.
D. Memory disorders and treatment options.
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III. Language.
A. Definition and types of language.
B. The structure of language.
C. The role of language in communication and learning.
D. Language disorders and treatment options.
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IV. Decision-making.
A. Definition and types of decision-making.
B. The role of decision-making in problem-solving.
C. Factors that influence decision-making.
D. Decision-making disorders and treatment options.
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V. Perception.
A. Definition and types of perception.
B. The role of perception in sensory processing.
C. Factors that influence perception.
D. Perception disorders and treatment options.
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VI. Problem-solving.
A. Definition and types of problem-solving.
B. The role of problem-solving in learning and decision-making.
C. Factors that influence problem-solving.
D. Problem-solving disorders and treatment options.
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VII. Machine learning.
A. Definition and types of machine learning.
B. The role of machine learning in artificial intelligence.
C. Factors that influence machine learning.
D. Machine learning applications and challenges.
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VIII. Artificial systems.
A. Definition and types of artificial systems.
B. The role of artificial systems in mimicking human cognitive functions.
C. Factors that influence artificial systems.
D. Artificial system applications and challenges.
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IX. Mimic.
A. Definition and types of mimicry.
B. The role of mimicry in artificial systems and machine learning.
C. Factors that influence mimicry.
D. Mimicry applications and challenges.
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X. Cognitive.
A. Definition and types of cognitive processes.
B. The role of cognition in mental functions such as perception, memory, and decision-making.
C. Factors that influence cognition.
D. Cognitive disorders and treatment options.
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5. Behavioral Functions.
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I. Emotion.
A. Definition and types of emotions.
B. The physiological and neurological basis of emotions.
C. The role of emotions in decision-making and behavior.
D. The cultural and social influences on emotions.
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II. Motivation.
A. Definition and types of motivation.
B. The physiological and neurological basis of motivation.
C. The role of motivation in goal-directed behavior.
D. The influence of emotions on motivation.
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III. Social behavior.
A. Definition and types of social behavior.
B. The physiological and neurological basis of social behavior.
C. The role of social behavior in communication and relationships.
D. The cultural and social influences on social behavior.
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IV. Physical movement.
A. Definition and types of physical movement.
B. The physiological and neurological basis of physical movement.
C. The role of physical movement in communication and relationships.
D. The cultural and social influences on physical movement.
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V. Social interactions.
A. Definition and types of social interactions.
B. The role of social interactions in communication and relationships.
C. The cultural and social influences on social interactions.
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VI. Relationships.
A. Definition and types of relationships.
B. The role of relationships in communication and social behavior.
C. The cultural and social influences on relationships.
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VII. Speech.
A. Definition and types of speech.
B. The physiological and neurological basis of speech.
C. The role of speech in communication and relationships.
D. The cultural and social influences on speech.
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VIII. Language.
A. Definition and types of language.
B. The physiological and neurological basis of language.
C. The role of language in communication and relationships.
D. The cultural and social influences on language.
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IX. Vocal cords.
A. Anatomy and function of the vocal cords.
B. The role of the vocal cords in speech production.
C. Disorders of the vocal cords and treatment options.
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X. Mouth.
A. Anatomy and function of the mouth.
B. The role of the mouth in speech production and swallowing.
C. Mouth-related disorders and treatment options.
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XI. Endocrine system.
A. Anatomy and function of the endocrine system.
B. The role of the endocrine system in behavior and mental processes.
C. Endocrine disorders and treatment options.
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XII. Muscles.
A. Anatomy and function of muscles.
B. The role of muscles in physical movement and posture.
C. Muscle disorders and treatment options.
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XIII. Skeletal system.
A. Anatomy and function of the skeletal system.
B. The role of the skeletal system in physical movement and support.
C. Skeletal disorders and treatment options.
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6. Psychology.
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I. Attention.
A. The structure of attention.
1. The physiological basis of attention.
2. The psychological basis of attention.
3. The neurological basis of attention.
B. The functions of attention.
1. Perception.
2. Memory.
3. Cognition.
C. The measurement of attention.
1. Self-report measures.
2. Observational measures.
3. Neuroimaging techniques.
D. The evolutionary perspective on attention.
1. The role of natural selection in shaping attention.
2. The role of genetics in attention.
3. The role of social learning in attention.
E. The cultural perspective on attention.
1. The role of culture in shaping attention.
2. The impact of cultural values on attention.
3. The role of attention in cultural adaptation.
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II. Memory.
A. The structure of memory.
1. The physiological basis of memory.
2. The psychological basis of memory.
3. The neurological basis of memory.
B. The functions of memory.
1. Perception.
2. Memory.
3. Cognition.
C. The measurement of memory.
1. Self-report measures.
2. Observational measures.
3. Neuroimaging techniques.
D. The evolutionary perspective on memory.
1. The role of natural selection in shaping memory.
2. The role of genetics in memory.
3. The role of social learning in memory.
E. The cultural perspective on memory.
1. The role of culture in shaping memory.
2. The impact of cultural values on memory.
3. The role of memory in cultural adaptation.
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III. Language.
A. The structure of language.
1. The physiological basis of language.
2. The psychological basis of language.
3. The neurological basis of language.
B. The functions of language.
1. Communication.
2. Social interaction.
3. Cognition.
4. Cultural transmission.
C. The measurement of language.
1. Self-report measures.
2. Observational measures.
3. Neuroimaging techniques.
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IV. Decision-making.
A. The structure of decision-making.
1. The physiological basis of decision-making.
2. The psychological basis of decision-making.
3. The neurological basis of decision-making.
B. The functions of decision-making.
1. Perception.
2. Memory.
3. Cognition.
C. The measurement of decision-making.
1. Self-report measures.
2. Observational measures.
3. Neuroimaging techniques.
D. The evolutionary perspective on decision-making.
1. The role of natural selection in shaping decision-making.
2. The role of genetics in decision-making.
3. The role of social learning in decision-making.
E. The cultural perspective on decision-making.
1. The role of culture in shaping decision-making.
2. The impact of cultural values on decision-making.
3. The role of decision-making in cultural adaptation.
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V. Emotion.
A. The structure of emotion.
1. The physiological basis of emotion.
2. The psychological basis of emotion.
3. The neurological basis of emotion.
B. The functions of emotion.
1. Perception.
2. Memory.
3. Cognition.
C. The measurement of emotion.
1. Self-report measures.
2. Observational measures.
3. Neuroimaging techniques.
D. The evolutionary perspective on emotion.
1. The role of natural selection in shaping emotion.
2. The role of genetics in emotion.
3. The role of social learning in emotion.
E. The cultural perspective on emotion.
1. The role of culture in shaping emotion.
2. The impact of cultural values on emotion.
3. The role of emotion in cultural adaptation.
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VI. Motivation.
A. The structure of motivation.
1. The physiological basis of motivation.
2. The psychological basis of motivation.
3. The neurological basis of motivation.
B. The functions of motivation.
1. Perception.
2. Memory.
3. Cognition.
C. The measurement of motivation.
1. Self-report measures.
2. Observational measures.
3. Neuroimaging techniques.
D. The evolutionary perspective on motivation.
1. The role of natural selection in shaping motivation.
2. The role of genetics in motivation.
3. The role of social learning in motivation.
E. The cultural perspective on motivation.
1. The role of culture in shaping motivation.
2. The impact of cultural values on motivation.
3. The role of motivation in cultural adaptation.
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VII. Social behavior.
A. The structure of social behavior.
1. The physiological basis of social behavior.
2. The psychological basis of social behavior.
3. The neurological basis of social behavior.
B. The functions of social behavior.
1. Communication.
2. Social interaction.
3. Cognition.
4. Cultural transmission.
C. The measurement of social behavior.
1. Self-report measures.
2. Observational measures.
3. Neuroimaging techniques.
D. The evolutionary perspective on social behavior.
1. The role of natural selection in shaping social behavior.
2. The role of genetics in social behavior.
3. The role of social learning in social behavior.
E. The cultural perspective on social behavior.
1. The role of culture in shaping social behavior.
2. The impact of cultural values on social behavior.
3. The role of social behavior in cultural adaptation.
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7. Social Sciences.
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I. Social behavior.
A. The structure of social behavior.
1. The physiological basis of social behavior.
2. The psychological basis of social behavior.
3. The neurological basis of social behavior.
B. The functions of social behavior.
1. Communication.
2. Social interaction.
3. Cognition.
4. Cultural transmission.
C. The measurement of social behavior.
1. Self-report measures.
2. Observational measures.
3. Neuroimaging techniques.
D. The evolutionary perspective on social behavior.
1. The role of natural selection in shaping social behavior.
2. The role of genetics in social behavior.
3. The role of social learning in social behavior.
E. The cultural perspective on social behavior.
1. The role of culture in shaping social behavior.
2. The impact of cultural values on social behavior.
3. The role of social behavior in cultural adaptation.
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II. Physical movement.
A. The structure of physical movement.
1. The physiological basis of physical movement.
2. The psychological basis of physical movement.
3. The neurological basis of physical movement.
B. The functions of physical movement.
1. Communication.
2. Social interaction.
3. Cognition.
4. Cultural transmission.
C. The measurement of physical movement.
1. Self-report measures.
2. Observational measures.
3. Neuroimaging techniques.
D. The evolutionary perspective on physical movement.
1. The role of natural selection in shaping physical movement.
2. The role of genetics in physical movement.
3. The role of social learning in physical movement.
E. The cultural perspective on physical movement.
1. The role of culture in shaping physical movement.
2. The impact of cultural values on physical movement.
3. The role of physical movement in cultural adaptation.
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III. Social interactions.
A. The structure of social interactions.
1. The physiological basis of social interactions.
2. The psychological basis of social interactions.
3. The neurological basis of social interactions.
B. The functions of social interactions.
1. Communication.
2. Social interaction.
3. Cognition.
4. Cultural transmission.
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IV. Relationships.
A. The structure of relationships.
1. The physiological basis of relationships.
2. The psychological basis of relationships.
3. The neurological basis of relationships.
B. The functions of relationships.
1. Communication.
2. Social interaction.
3. Cognition.
4. Cultural transmission.
C. The measurement of relationships.
1. Self-report measures.
2. Observational measures.
3. Neuroimaging techniques.
D. The evolutionary perspective on relationships.
1. The role of natural selection in shaping relationships.
2. The role of genetics in relationships.
3. The role of social learning in relationships.
E. The cultural perspective on relationships.
1. The role of culture in shaping relationships.
2. The impact of cultural values on relationships.
3. The role of relationships in cultural adaptation.
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8. Philosophy.
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I. Perception.
A. The structure of perception.
1. The physiological basis of perception.
2. The psychological basis of perception.
3. The neurological basis of perception.
B. The functions of perception.
1. Communication.
2. Social interaction.
3. Cognition.
4. Cultural transmission.
C. The measurement of perception.
1. Self-report measures.
2. Observational measures.
3. Neuroimaging techniques.
D. The evolutionary perspective on perception.
1. The role of natural selection in shaping perception.
2. The role of genetics in perception.
3. The role of social learning in perception.
E. The cultural perspective on perception.
1. The role of culture in shaping perception.
2. The impact of cultural values on perception.
3. The role of perception in cultural adaptation.
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II. Memory.
A. The structure of memory.
1. The physiological basis of memory.
2. The psychological basis of memory.
3. The neurological basis of memory.
B. The functions of memory.
1. Communication.
2. Social interaction.
3. Cognition.
4. Cultural transmission.
C. The measurement of memory.
1. Self-report measures.
2. Observational measures.
3. Neuroimaging techniques.
D. The evolutionary perspective on memory.
1. The role of natural selection in shaping memory.
2. The role of genetics in memory.
3. The role of social learning in memory.
E. The cultural perspective on memory.
1. The role of culture in shaping memory.
2. The impact of cultural values on memory.
3. The role of memory in cultural adaptation.
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III. Problem-solving.
A. The structure of problem-solving.
1. The physiological basis of problem-solving.
2. The psychological basis of problem-solving.
3. The neurological basis of problem-solving.
B. The functions of problem-solving.
1. Communication.
2. Social interaction.
3. Cognition.
4. Cultural transmission.
C. The measurement of problem-solving.
1. Self-report measures.
2. Observational measures.
3. Neuroimaging techniques.
D. The evolutionary perspective on problem-solving.
1. The role of natural selection in shaping problem-solving.
2. The role of genetics in problem-solving.
3. The role of social learning in problem-solving.
E. The cultural perspective on problem-solving.
1. The role of culture in shaping problem-solving.
2. The impact of cultural values on problem-solving.
3. The role of problem-solving in cultural adaptation.
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IV. The nature of knowledge and reality.
A. Epistemology: The study of knowledge.
1. The definition of knowledge.
2. The sources of knowledge.
3. The criteria for knowledge.
B. Metaphysics: The study of reality.
1. The definition of reality.
2. The nature of reality.
3. The existence of reality.
C. The measurement of the nature of knowledge and reality.
1. Self-report measures.
2. Observational measures.
3. Neuroimaging techniques.
D. The evolutionary perspective on the nature of knowledge and reality.
1. The role of natural selection in shaping the nature of knowledge and reality.
2. The role of genetics in the nature of knowledge and reality.
3. The role of social learning in the nature of knowledge and reality.
E. The cultural perspective on the nature of knowledge and reality.
1. The role of culture in shaping the nature of knowledge and reality.
2. The impact of cultural values on the nature of knowledge and reality.
3. The role of the nature of knowledge and reality in cultural adaptation.
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9. Linguistics.
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I. Language.
A. The structure of language.
1. Phonetics: The study of speech sounds.
2. Phonology: The study of the sound system of a language.
3. Morphology: The study of the internal structure of words.
4. Syntax: The study of the structure of sentences.
B. The functions of language.
1. Communication.
2. Social interaction.
3. Cognition.
4. Cultural transmission.
C. The measurement of language.
1. Self-report measures.
2. Observational measures.
3. Neuroimaging techniques.
D. The neurological basis of language.
1. The role of the prefrontal cortex in language production.
2. The role of the temporal lobe in language comprehension.
3. The role of the parietal lobe in spatial language.
E. The evolutionary perspective on language.
1. The role of natural selection in shaping language.
2. The role of genetics in language.
3. The role of social learning in language.
F. The cultural perspective on language.
1. The role of culture in shaping language.
2. The impact of cultural values on language.
3. The role of language in cultural adaptation.
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II. Speech.
A. The structure of speech.
1. Articulation: The production of speech sounds.
2. Prosody: The rhythm, stress, and intonation of speech.
3. Voice: The physical properties of the vocal tract.
B. The functions of speech.
1. Communication.
2. Social interaction.
3. Cognition.
4. Cultural transmission.
C. The measurement of speech.
1. Self-report measures.
2. Observational measures.
3. Neuroimaging techniques.
D. The neurological basis of speech.
1. The role of the motor cortex in speech production.
2. The role of the temporal lobe in speech comprehension.
3. The role of the parietal lobe in spatial speech.
E. The evolutionary perspective on speech.
1. The role of natural selection in shaping speech.
2. The role of genetics in speech.
3. The role of social learning in speech.
F. The cultural perspective on speech.
1. The role of culture in shaping speech.
2. The impact of cultural values on speech.
3. The role of speech in cultural adaptation.
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10. Neuroscience.
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I. The brain.
A. The structure of the brain.
1. The cerebrum.
2. The cerebellum.
3. The brainstem.
B. The functions of the brain.
1. Sensory processing.
2. Motor control.
3. Learning and memory.
4. Emotion and behavior.
C. The measurement of brain function.
1. Self-report measures.
2. Observational measures.
3. Neuroimaging techniques.
D. The neurological basis of behavior and mental processes.
1. The role of the prefrontal cortex in decision-making and social behavior.
2. The role of the amygdala in emotion and fear.
3. The role of the hippocampus in memory.
E. The evolutionary perspective on brain function.
1. The role of natural selection in shaping brain function.
2. The role of genetics in brain function.
3. The role of social learning in brain function.
F. The cultural perspective on brain function.
1. The role of culture in shaping brain function.
2. The impact of cultural values on brain function.
3. The role of brain function in cultural adaptation.
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II. The nervous system.
A. The structure of the nervous system.
1. The central nervous system (CNS).
2. The peripheral nervous system (PNS).
B. The functions of the nervous system.
1. Sensory processing.
2. Motor control.
3. Homeostasis.
4. Learning and memory.
C. The measurement of nervous system function.
1. Self-report measures.
2. Observational measures.
3. Neuroimaging techniques.
D. The neurological basis of behavior and mental processes.
1. The role of the somatic nervous system in voluntary movement.
2. The role of the autonomic nervous system in involuntary functions.
3. The role of the enteric nervous system in digestion.
E. The evolutionary perspective on nervous system function.
1. The role of natural selection in shaping nervous system function.
2. The role of genetics in shaping nervous system function.
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III. Other body systems involved in brain function.
A. The respiratory system.
1. The structure of the respiratory system.
2. The functions of the respiratory system.
3. The measurement of respiratory system function.
4. The neurological basis of respiratory system function.
B. The cardiovascular system.
1. The structure of the cardiovascular system.
2. The functions of the cardiovascular system.
3. The measurement of cardiovascular system function.
4. The neurological basis of cardiovascular system function.
C. The endocrine system.
1. The structure of the endocrine system.
2. The functions of the endocrine system.
3. The measurement of endocrine system function.
4. The neurological basis of endocrine system function.
D. The evolutionary perspective on body systems involved in brain function.
1. The role of natural selection in shaping body system function.
2. The role of genetics in body system function.
3. The role of social learning in body system function.
E. The cultural perspective on body systems involved in brain function.
1. The role of culture in shaping body system function.
2. The impact of cultural values on body system function.
3. The role of body system function in cultural adaptation.
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11. Cognitive Science.
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I. Perception.
A. The definition and types of perception.
1. Visual perception.
2. Auditory perception.
3. Olfactory perception.
4. Gustatory perception.
5. Tactile perception.
B. The factors that influence perception.
1. Sensory modalities.
2. Attention.
3. Expectation.
4. Prior knowledge.
C. The measurement of perception.
1. Self-report measures.
2. Observational measures.
3. Neuroimaging techniques.
D. The neurological basis of perception.
1. The role of the primary sensory cortex in perception.
2. The role of the association cortex in perception.
3. The role of the autonomic nervous system in perception.
E. The evolutionary perspective on perception.
1. The role of natural selection in shaping perception.
2. The role of genetics in perception.
3. The role of social learning in perception.
F. The cultural perspective on perception.
1. The role of culture in shaping perception.
2. The impact of cultural values on perception.
3. The role of perception in cultural adaptation.
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II. Memory.
A. The definition and types of memory.
1. Sensory memory.
2. Short-term memory.
3. Long-term memory.
B. The factors that influence memory.
1. Attention.
2. Rehearsal.
3. Elaboration.
4. Emotion.
C. The measurement of memory.
1. Self-report measures.
2. Observational measures.
3. Neuroimaging techniques.
D. The neurological basis of memory.
1. The role of the hippocampus in memory.
2. The role of the prefrontal cortex in memory.
3. The role of the autonomic nervous system in memory.
E. The evolutionary perspective on memory.
1. The role of natural selection in shaping memory.
2. The role of genetics in memory.
3. The role of social learning in memory.
F. The cultural perspective on memory.
1. The role of culture in shaping memory.
2. The impact of cultural values on memory.
3. The role of memory in cultural adaptation.
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III. Problem-solving.
A. The definition and types of problem-solving.
1. Analytic problem-solving.
2. Creative problem-solving.
3. Insight problem-solving.
B. The factors that influence problem-solving.
1. Knowledge.
2. Experience.
3. Motivation.
4. Persistence.
C. The measurement of problem-solving.
1. Self-report measures.
2. Observational measures.
3. Neuroimaging techniques.
D. The neurological basis of problem-solving.
1. The role of the prefrontal cortex in problem-solving.
2. The role of the parietal lobe in problem-solving.
3. The role of the autonomic nervous system in problem-solving.
E. The evolutionary perspective on problem-solving.
1. The role of natural selection in shaping problem-solving.
2. The role of genetics in problem-solving.
3. The role of social learning in problem-solving.
F. The cultural perspective on problem-solving.
1. The role of culture in shaping problem-solving.
2. The impact of cultural values on problem-solving.
3. The role of problem-solving in cultural adaptation.
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IV. Artificial intelligence.
A. The definition and types of artificial intelligence.
1. Weak artificial intelligence.
2. Strong artificial intelligence.
3. General artificial intelligence.
B. The techniques used in artificial intelligence.
1. Machine learning.
2. Neural networks.
3. Expert systems.
C. The applications of artificial intelligence.
1. Robotics.
2. Natural language processing.
3. Computer vision.
4. Decision-making.
D. The ethical considerations of artificial intelligence.
1. The potential impact of artificial intelligence on employment.
2. The potential impact of artificial intelligence on privacy.
3. The potential impact of artificial intelligence on society.
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V. Cognitive computing.
A. The definition and principles of cognitive computing.
1. The use of machine learning and natural language processing in cognitive computing.
2. The ability of cognitive computing systems to learn and adapt.
3. The use of neural networks in cognitive computing.
B. The applications of cognitive computing.
1. Personal assistants.
2. Customer service.
3. Decision-making.
4. Predictive analytics.
C. The ethical considerations of cognitive computing.
1. The potential impact of cognitive computing on employment.
2. The potential impact of cognitive computing on privacy.
3. The potential impact of cognitive computing on society.
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12. Behavioral Science.
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I. Emotion.
A. The definition and types of emotion.
1. Basic emotions (e.g. happiness, sadness, anger).
2. Complex emotions (e.g. guilt, shame, envy).
B. The factors that influence emotion.
1. Genetics.
2. Developmental stage.
3. Environmental factors (e.g. culture, life experiences).
C. The measurement of emotion.
1. Self-report measures.
2. Observational measures.
3. Neuroimaging techniques.
D. The neurological basis of emotion.
1. The role of the amygdala in emotion.
2. The role of the prefrontal cortex in emotion regulation.
3. The role of the autonomic nervous system in emotion.
E. The evolutionary perspective on emotion.
1. The role of natural selection in shaping emotion.
2. The role of genetics in emotion.
3. The role of social learning in emotion.
F. The cultural perspective on emotion.
1. The role of culture in shaping emotion.
2. The impact of cultural values on emotion.
3. The role of emotion in cultural adaptation.
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II. Motivation.
A. The definition and types of motivation.
1. Intrinsic motivation.
2. Extrinsic motivation.
B. The factors that influence motivation.
1. Needs.
2. Goals.
3. Expectancy.
4. Value.
C. The measurement of motivation.
1. Self-report measures.
2. Observational measures.
3. Neuroimaging techniques.
D. The neurological basis of motivation.
1. The role of the basal ganglia in motivation.
2. The role of the prefrontal cortex in motivation.
3. The role of the autonomic nervous system in motivation.
E. The evolutionary perspective on motivation.
1. The role of natural selection in shaping motivation.
2. The role of genetics in motivation.
3. The role of social learning in motivation.
F. The cultural perspective on motivation.
1. The role of culture in shaping motivation.
2. The impact of cultural values on motivation.
3. The role of motivation in cultural adaptation.
.
III. Social behavior.
A. The definition and types of social behavior.
1. Prosocial behavior.
2. Antisocial behavior.
3. Altruistic behavior.
B. The factors that influence social behavior.
1. Culture.
2. Personality.
3. Social norms.
4. Social identity.
C. The measurement of social behavior.
1. Self-report measures.
2. Observational measures.
3. Neuroimaging techniques.
D. The neurological basis of social behavior.
1. The role of the amygdala in social behavior.
2. The role of the prefrontal cortex in social behavior.
3. The role of the autonomic nervous system in social behavior.
E. The evolutionary perspective on social behavior.
1. The role of natural selection in shaping social behavior.
F. The cultural perspective on social behavior.
1. The role of culture in shaping social behavior.
2. The impact of cultural values on social behavior.
3. The role of social behavior in cultural adaptation.
.
IV. Endocrine system.
A. The definition and functions of the endocrine system.
1. Hormones and their functions.
2. Endocrine glands and their functions.
B. The measurement of endocrine system function.
1. Hormone assays.
2. Neuroimaging techniques.
C. The effects of the endocrine system on behavior.
1. The role of hormones in emotion.
2. The role of hormones in motivation.
3. The role of hormones in social behavior.
.
V. Nervous system.
A. The definition and functions of the nervous system.
1. Neurons and their functions.
2. Nerve pathways and their functions.
3. The brain and its functions.
B. The measurement of nervous system function.
1. Electroencephalography (EEG).
2. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
3. Positron emission tomography (PET).
C. The effects of the nervous system on behavior.
1. The role of the brain in emotion.
2. The role of the brain in motivation.
3. The role of the brain in social behavior.
.
13. Sociology.
.
I. Social behavior.
A. The definition and types of social behavior.
1. Prosocial behavior.
2. Antisocial behavior.
3. Altruistic behavior.
B. The factors that influence social behavior.
1. Culture.
2. Personality.
3. Social norms.
4. Social identity.
C. The measurement of social behavior.
1. Self-report measures.
2. Observational measures.
3. Neuroimaging techniques.
D. The sociological perspective on social behavior.
1. The role of social structure in shaping social behavior.
2. The impact of social institutions on social behavior.
3. The role of social behavior in social change.
.
II. Physical movement.
A. The types of physical movement.
1. Gross motor skills.
2. Fine motor skills.
B. The factors that influence physical movement.
1. Genetics.
2. Developmental stage.
3. Environmental factors (e.g. culture, access to resources).
C. The measurement of physical movement.
1. Observational measures.
2. Performance measures.
3. Neuroimaging techniques.
D. The sociological perspective on physical movement.
1. The role of social structure in shaping physical movement.
2. The impact of social institutions on physical movement.
3. The role of physical movement in social change.
.
III. Social interactions.
A. The types of social interactions.
1. Face-to-face interactions.
2. Nonverbal communication.
3. Verbal communication.
B. The factors that influence social interactions.
1. Culture.
2. Personality.
3. Social norms.
4. Social identity.
C. The measurement of social interactions.
1. Self-report measures.
2. Observational measures.
3. Neuroimaging techniques.
D. The sociological perspective on social interactions.
1. The role of social structure in shaping social interactions.
2. The impact of social institutions on social interactions.
3. The role of social interactions in social change.
.
IV. Relationships.
A. The types of relationships.
1. Romantic relationships.
2. Family relationships.
3. Friendship relationships.
B. The factors that influence relationships.
1. Culture.
2. Personality.
3. Social norms.
4. Social identity.
C. The measurement of relationships.
1. Self-report measures.
2. Observational measures.
3. Neuroimaging techniques.
D. The sociological perspective on relationships.
1. The role of social structure in shaping relationships.
2. The impact of social institutions on relationships.
3. The role of relationships in social change.
.
14. Anthropology.
.
I. Social behavior.
A. The definition and types of social behavior.
1. Prosocial behavior.
2. Antisocial behavior.
3. Altruistic behavior.
B. The factors that influence social behavior.
1. Culture.
2. Personality.
3. Social norms.
4. Social identity.
C. The measurement of social behavior.
1. Self-report measures.
2. Observational measures.
3. Neuroimaging techniques.
D. The evolutionary perspective on social behavior.
1. The role of natural selection in shaping social behavior.
2. The role of genetics in social behavior.
3. The role of social learning in social behavior.
E. The cultural perspective on social behavior.
1. The role of culture in shaping social behavior.
2. The impact of cultural values on social behavior.
3. The role of social behavior in cultural adaptation.
.
II. Physical movement.
A. The types of physical movement.
1. Gross motor skills.
2. Fine motor skills.
B. The factors that influence physical movement.
1. Genetics.
2. Developmental stage.
3. Environmental factors (e.g. culture, access to resources).
C. The measurement of physical movement.
1. Observational measures.
2. Performance measures.
3. Neuroimaging techniques.
D. The evolutionary perspective on physical movement.
1. The role of natural selection in shaping physical movement.
2. The role of genetics in physical movement.
3. The role of social learning in physical movement.
E. The cultural perspective on physical movement.
1. The role of culture in shaping physical movement.
2. The impact of cultural values on physical movement.
3. The role of physical movement in cultural adaptation.
.
III. Social interactions.
A. The types of social interactions.
1. Face-to-face interactions.
2. Nonverbal communication.
3. Verbal communication.
B. The factors that influence social interactions.
1. Culture.
2. Personality.
3. Social norms.
4. Social identity.
C. The measurement of social interactions.
1. Self-report measures.
2. Observational measures.
3. Neuroimaging techniques.
D. The evolutionary perspective on social interactions.
1. The role of natural selection in shaping social interactions.
2. The role of genetics in social interactions.
3. The role of social learning in social interactions.
E. The cultural perspective on social interactions.
1. The role of culture in shaping social interactions.
2. The impact of cultural values on social interactions.
3. The role of social interactions in cultural adaptation.
.
IV. Relationships.
A. The types of relationships.
1. Romantic relationships.
2. Family relationships.
3. Friendship relationships.
B. The factors that influence relationships.
1. Culture.
2. Personality.
3. Social norms.
4. Social identity.
C. The measurement of relationships.
1. Self-report measures.
2. Observational measures.
3. Neuroimaging techniques.
D. The evolutionary perspective on relationships.
1. The role of natural selection in shaping relationships.
2. The role of genetics in relationships.
3. The role of social learning in relationships.
E. The cultural perspective on relationships.
1. The role of culture in shaping relationships.
2. The impact of cultural values on relationships.
3. The role of relationships in cultural adaptation.
.
15. Education.
.
I. Learning.
A. The definition and types of learning.
1. Observational learning.
2. Classical conditioning.
3. Operant conditioning.
4. Cognitive learning.
B. The factors that influence learning.
1. Motivation.
2. Emotion.
3. Attention.
4. Prior knowledge.
C. The theories of learning.
1. Behaviorism.
2. Cognitivism.
3. Constructivism.
D. The measurement of learning.
1. Self-report measures.
2. Performance measures.
3. Neuroimaging techniques.
E. The role of learning in problem-solving.
1. The use of learning in problem-solving.
2. The impact of learning on problem-solving.
.
II. Teaching.
A. The definition and types of teaching.
1. Direct instruction.
2. Inquiry-based learning.
3. Project-based learning.
4. Collaborative learning.
B. The theories of teaching.
1. Behaviorism.
2. Cognitivism.
3. Constructivism.
C. The methods of teaching.
1. Lecture.
2. Demonstration.
3. Discussion.
4. Inquiry.
D. The evaluation of teaching.
1. Student performance measures.
2. Teacher self-report measures.
3. Classroom observation measures.
E. The role of teaching in learning.
1. The impact of teaching on learning.
2. The role of feedback in teaching and learning.
.
III. Cognitive functions.
A. Attention.
1. The definition and types of attention.
2. The factors that influence attention.
3. The measurement of attention.
B. Memory.
1. The types of memory (e.g. short-term memory, long-term memory).
2. The factors that influence memory.
3. The measurement of memory.
C. Problem-solving.
1. The process of problem-solving.
2. The factors that influence problem-solving.
3. The measurement of problem-solving.
.
IV. Physical movement and the muscles and skeletal system.
A. Physical movement.
1. The types of physical movement (e.g. gross motor skills, fine motor skills).
2. The factors that influence physical movement.
3. The measurement of physical movement.
B. The muscles and skeletal system.
1. The structure and function of the muscles and skeletal system.
2. The role of the muscles and skeletal system in physical movement.
3. The measurement of muscle strength and skeletal health.
.
16. Artificial Intelligence.
.
I. Machine learning.
A. The definition and types of machine learning.
1. Supervised learning.
2. Unsupervised learning.
3. Reinforcement learning.
B. The algorithms and techniques used in machine learning.
1. Decision trees.
2. Neural networks.
3. Deep learning.
4. Genetic algorithms.
C. The applications of machine learning.
1. Natural language processing.
2. Computer vision.
3. Robotics.
4. Predictive modeling.
D. The evaluation of machine learning models.
1. The use of performance metrics (e.g. accuracy, precision, recall).
2. The use of cross-validation.
3. The use of test sets.
E. The ethical considerations in machine learning.
1. The impact of bias in machine learning algorithms.
2. The impact of transparency and explainability in machine learning.
3. The impact of accountability in machine learning.
.
II. Artificial systems that mimic human cognitive functions.
A. Perception.
1. The process of perception in artificial systems.
2. The role of machine learning in perception in artificial systems.
3. The comparison of perception in artificial systems to human perception.
B. Memory.
1. The types of memory in artificial systems (e.g. short-term memory, long-term memory).
2. The process of memory in artificial systems.
3. The comparison of memory in artificial systems to human memory.
C. Problem-solving.
1. The process of problem-solving in artificial systems.
2. The role of machine learning in problem-solving in artificial systems.
3. The comparison of problem-solving in artificial systems to human problem-solving.
.
III. Behavioral functions.
A. Social behavior.
1. The definition and types of social behavior in artificial systems.
2. The role of machine learning in social behavior in artificial systems.
3. The comparison of social behavior in artificial systems to human social behavior.
B. Physical movement.
1. The process of physical movement in artificial systems.
2. The role of machine learning in physical movement in artificial systems.
3. The comparison of physical movement in artificial systems to human physical movement.
.
17. Cognitive Linguistics.
.
I. Language.
A. The structure of language.
1. The components of language (e.g. phonemes, words, sentences).
2. The role of syntax in language.
3. The role of semantics in language.
B. The acquisition of language.
1. The stages of language development in children.
2. The role of language exposure in language acquisition.
3. The role of genetics in language acquisition.
C. The function of language.
1. The role of language in communication.
2. The impact of language on thought and cognition.
3. The role of language in social interactions.
D. The variation in language.
1. The role of dialects in language.
2. The role of language change in language variation.
3. The role of language contact in language variation.
E. The evolution of language.
1. The origins of language.
2. The evolution of language over time.
3. The relationship between language and the brain.
.
II. Decision-making.
A. The process of decision-making.
1. The role of attention in decision-making.
2. The role of memory in decision-making.
3. The role of emotion in decision-making.
B. The factors that influence decision-making.
1. The impact of context on decision-making.
2. The impact of social influences on decision-making.
3. The impact of personality on decision-making.
C. The measurement of decision-making.
1. Self-report measures.
II. Decision-making (continued).
D. The biases and heuristics in decision-making.
1. The types of biases and heuristics that influence decision-making.
2. The impact of biases and heuristics on decision-making.
E. The role of decision-making in problem-solving.
1. The use of decision-making in problem-solving.
2. The impact of decision-making on problem-solving.
.
III. Speech and language.
A. The production of speech.
1. The process of speech production.
2. The role of the brain in speech production.
3. The role of the muscles and skeletal system in speech production.
B. The perception of speech.
1. The process of speech perception.
2. The role of the brain in speech perception.
3. The role of attention in speech perception.
C. The disorders of speech and language.
1. The types of speech and language disorders.
2. The causes of speech and language disorders.
3. The treatment of speech and language disorders.
D. The role of speech and language in communication.
1. The use of speech and language in verbal communication.
2. The use of nonverbal communication in conjunction with speech and language.
3. The role of language and speech in social interactions.
E. The cultural and individual differences in speech and language.
1. The role of culture in shaping speech and language patterns.
2. The impact of individual differences in language and speech on communication.
3. The role of language and speech in identity formation.
.
18. Philosophy of Mind.
.
I. The nature of the mind.
A. Dualism.
1. Substance dualism.
2. Property dualism.
B. Monism.
1. Physicalism.
2. Idealism.
C. Non-dualistic approaches.
1. Panpsychism.
2. Neutral monism.
3. Process philosophy.
.
II. Mental states and processes.
A. Perception.
1. The nature of sensory experiences.
2. The relationship between perception and reality.
B. Thinking and reasoning.
1. The nature of thought.
2. The role of logic and reason in thinking.
C. Emotion.
1. The nature of emotional experiences.
2. The relationship between emotion and cognition.
D. Consciousness.
1. The nature of consciousness.
2. The problem of other minds.
.
III. The relationship between the mind and the brain.
A. The mind-body problem.
1. The interactionist view.
2. The epiphenomenalist view.
3. The eliminative materialist view.
B. The nature of mental representation.
1. The symbolist view.
2. The connectionist view.
3. The dynamic systems view.
C. The nature of mental causation.
1. The issue of downward causation.
2. The role of supervenience in mental causation.
D. The problem of personal identity.
1. The body view.
2. The brain view.
3. The psychological view.
.
IV. Other philosophical issues in the philosophy of mind.
A. The problem of free will.
1. Determinism versus indeterminism.
2. Compatibilism versus incompatibilism.
B. The nature of moral judgment.
1. The role of emotions in moral judgment.
2. The relationship between moral judgment and moral behavior.
C. The problem of artificial intelligence.
1. The possibility of creating a machine with human-like intelligence.
2. The ethical implications of artificial intelligence.
D. The problem of consciousness.
1. The hard problem of consciousness.
2. The relationship between consciousness and the brain.
3. The question of whether consciousness can be explained in physical terms..
.
19. Cognitive Psychology.
.
I. Perception.
A. Sensory processes.
1. Sight.
2. Hearing.
3. Taste.
4. Smell.
5. Touch.
B. Attention.
1. Selective attention.
2. Divided attention.
3. Sustained attention.
C. Pattern recognition.
1. Feature detection.
2. Invariant recognition.
3. Gestalt principles of perception.
D. Perceptual constancy.
1. Size constancy.
2. Shape constancy.
3. Color constancy.
E. Perceptual organization.
1. Grouping.
2. Segmentation.
3. Proximity.
.
II. Memory.
A. Sensory memory.
1. Iconic memory.
2. Echoic memory.
B. Short-term memory.
1. The working memory model.
2. The role of rehearsal in maintaining information in short-term memory.
C. Long-term memory.
1. Declarative memory.
a. Episodic memory.
b. Semantic memory.
2. Procedural memory.
D. Forgetting.
1. Decay theory.
2. Interference theory.
3. Motivated forgetting.
.
III. Language.
A. Phonetics.
1. The production of speech sounds.
2. The perception of speech sounds.
B. Syntax.
1. The structure of sentences.
2. Rules for combining words into sentences.
C. Semantics.
1. The meaning of words and sentences.
2. The role of context in determining meaning.
.
IV. Problem-solving.
A. Algorithmic approaches.
1. The use of step-by-step procedures to solve problems.
2. The limitations of algorithmic approaches.
B. Heuristic approaches.
1. The use of mental shortcuts to solve problems.
2. The role of experience in heuristic problem-solving.
C. Insight-based approaches.
1. The sudden realization of a solution to a problem.
2. The role of incubation in insight problem-solving.
.
V. The brain and cognitive functions.
A. Neuroanatomy.
1. Gross anatomy of the brain.
2. Microscopic anatomy of the brain.
3. Brain regions and their functions.
B. Neurophysiology.
1. Neural transmission.
2. The role of neurotransmitters in cognitive functions.
3. The role of brain waves in cognitive functions.
C. Cognitive neuroscience.
1. The use of brain imaging techniques to study cognitive functions.
2. The relationship between brain activity and cognitive processes.
3. The role of genetics in cognitive functions.
.
20. Clinical Psychology.
.
I. Mental health.
A. The definition and nature of mental health.
1. The components of mental health (e.g. emotional well-being, social well-being, psychological well-being).
2. The factors that influence mental health (e.g. genetics, environment, culture).
B. The assessment of mental health.
1. The use of mental health screening tools (e.g. depression screening, anxiety screening).
2. The use of standardized diagnostic assessments (e.g. the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders).
3. The role of the clinical interview in the assessment of mental health.
C. The promotion of mental health.
1. The role of prevention in mental health.
2. The role of early intervention in mental health.
3. The role of resilience in mental health.
D. The measurement of mental health.
1. Self-report measures of mental health (e.g. questionnaires, interviews).
2. Behavioral measures of mental health.
3. Physiological measures of mental health.
E. The relationship between physical health and mental health.
1. The impact of physical health on mental health.
2. The impact of mental health on physical health.
.
II. Psychological disorders.
A. The definition and classification of psychological disorders.
1. The diagnostic criteria for psychological disorders (e.g. the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders).
2. The categories of psychological disorders (e.g. anxiety disorders, mood disorders, psychotic disorders).
B. The prevalence and etiology of psychological disorders.
1. The incidence and prevalence of psychological disorders.
2. The causes of psychological disorders (e.g. genetics, environment, brain functioning).
C. The assessment and diagnosis of psychological disorders.
1. The use of mental health screening tools in the diagnosis of psychological disorders.
2. The use of standardized diagnostic assessments in the diagnosis of psychological disorders.
3. The role of the clinical interview in the diagnosis of psychological disorders.
D. The treatment of psychological disorders.
1. The types of treatment for psychological disorders (e.g. medication, psychotherapy).
2. The effectiveness of different treatments for psychological disorders.
3. The role of the therapeutic relationship in treatment.
E. The impact of psychological disorders on individuals and society.
1. The impact of psychological disorders on quality of life.
2. The impact of psychological disorders on functioning.
3. The burden of psychological disorders on society.
.
21. Personality Psychology.
.
I. Personality.
A. The definition and nature of personality.
1. Personality traits.
2. Personality factors.
B. The measurement of personality.
1. Self-report measures (e.g. questionnaires, interviews).
2. Projective measures (e.g. inkblot tests, thematic apperception test).
3. Behavioral observation measures.
C. The development of personality.
1. The role of genetics in personality development.
2. The role of environment in personality development.
3. The role of culture in personality development.
D. The stability of personality.
1. The consistency of personality over time.
2. The role of change in personality.
E. The heritability of personality.
1. The role of genetics in personality.
2. The role of environmental influences on personality.
.
II. Emotion.
A. The definition and nature of emotion.
1. The components of emotion (e.g. physiological arousal, subjective experience, expressive behavior).
2. The functions of emotion.
B. The expression of emotion.
1. The cultural and individual differences in emotion expression.
2. The role of social context in emotion expression.
C. The regulation of emotion.
1. The strategies for managing emotion.
2. The role of emotion regulation in well-being.
D. The influence of emotion on cognition and behavior.
1. The impact of emotion on attention and memory.
2. The impact of emotion on decision-making.
3. The role of emotion in motivation.
E. The measurement of emotion.
1. Self-report measures of emotion.
2. Physiological measures of emotion.
3. Behavioral measures of emotion.
.
III. Motivation.
A. The definition and nature of motivation.
1. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.
2. The role of goals in motivation.
B. The theories of motivation.
1. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
2. Self-determination theory.
3. Expectancy theory.
C. The measurement of motivation.
1. Self-report measures of motivation.
2. Behavioral measures of motivation.
3. Physiological measures of motivation.
D. The role of motivation in emotion.
1. The impact of motivation on emotion.
2. The role of emotion in motivation.
E. The role of motivation in cognition and behavior.
1. The impact of motivation on attention and memory.
2. The impact of motivation on decision-making.
3. The role of motivation in goal-directed behavior.
.
22. Social Psychology.
.
I. Social behavior.
A. Attitudes.
1. The definition and structure of attitudes.
2. The function of attitudes.
3. The formation of attitudes.
B. Persuasion.
1. The process of persuasion.
2. Factors that influence persuasion (e.g. source credibility, message content, audience characteristics).
C. Social influence.
1. Conformity.
2. Obedience.
3. Minority influence.
D. Prejudice and discrimination.
1. The definition and forms of prejudice and discrimination.
2. The causes of prejudice and discrimination.
3. The consequences of prejudice and discrimination.
E. Aggression.
1. The definition and forms of aggression.
2. The causes of aggression.
3. The consequences of aggression.
.
II. Social interactions.
A. Interpersonal relationships.
1. Types of interpersonal relationships (e.g. romantic relationships, friendships).
2. The formation and maintenance of interpersonal relationships.
3. The role of communication in interpersonal relationships.
B. Group dynamics.
1. The formation and maintenance of groups.
2. The roles and norms of group members.
3. Group decision-making.
C. Intergroup relations.
1. Prejudice and discrimination between groups.
2. The impact of group membership on behavior and attitudes.
3. Strategies for reducing intergroup conflict.
D. Social exchange theory.
1. The use of economic principles to understand social interactions.
2. The concept of social exchange.
E. Social identity theory.
1. The impact of group membership on self-concept.
2. The role of social identity in intergroup relations.
.
III. Social relationships.
A. Social support.
1. The definition and forms of social support.
2. The benefits of social support.
3. The role of social support in coping with stress.
B. Altruism.
1. The definition and forms of altruism.
2. The factors that influence altruistic behavior.
C. Prosocial behavior.
1. The definition and forms of prosocial behavior.
2. The factors that influence prosocial behavior.
D. Social comparison.
1. The impact of social comparison on self-concept.
2. The role of social comparison in achievement and well-being.
E. Social exchange and relationships.
1. The impact of social exchange on relationships.
2. The role of power and dependence in social exchange.
3. The impact of social exchange on relationship satisfaction and longevity.
.
23. Biological Psychology.
.
I. The brain.
A. The structure of the brain.
1. The major regions of the brain (e.g. the cerebral cortex, the hippocampus, the amygdala).
2. The function of different brain regions.
B. The neuroanatomy of the brain.
1. The structure of neurons.
2. The structure of glial cells.
3. The structure of the nervous system.
C. The neurophysiology of the brain.
1. The function of neurons.
2. The function of glial cells.
3. The function of the nervous system.
D. The neurochemistry of the brain.
1. The role of neurotransmitters in brain function.
2. The role of hormones in brain function.
3. The role of neuromodulators in brain function.
E. The neuroplasticity of the brain.
1. The ability of the brain to reorganize itself.
2. The role of experience in neuroplasticity.
.
II. The body systems.
A. The respiratory system.
1. The structure and function of the respiratory system.
2. The role of the respiratory system in maintaining homeostasis.
B. The cardiovascular system.
1. The structure and function of the cardiovascular system.
2. The role of the cardiovascular system in maintaining homeostasis.
C. The endocrine system.
1. The structure and function of the endocrine system.
2. The role of the endocrine system in maintaining homeostasis.
3. The function of specific hormones (e.g. insulin, testosterone, cortisol).
D. The immune system.
1. The structure and function of the immune system.
2. The role of the immune system in maintaining homeostasis.
E. The digestive system.
1. The structure and function of the digestive system.
2. The role of the digestive system in maintaining homeostasis.
.
24. Sensation and Perception.
.
I. Sensory processes.
A. Sight.
1. The structure and function of the eye.
2. Visual pathways in the brain.
3. Visual perception.
B. Hearing.
1. The structure and function of the ear.
2. Auditory pathways in the brain.
3. Auditory perception.
C. Taste.
1. The structure and function of taste buds.
2. The basic tastes (sweet, sour, salty, bitter).
3. Taste perception.
D. Smell.
1. The structure and function of the olfactory system.
2. The perception of odors.
E. Touch.
1. The structure and function of the skin and touch receptors.
2. The perception of touch, temperature, and pain.
.
II. Perceptual processes.
A. Perception of spatial relationships.
1. Depth perception.
2. Distance perception.
3. Size perception.
B. Perception of form and shape.
1. Gestalt principles of perception.
2. The perception of figures and ground.
C. Perception of movement.
1. The perception of relative motion.
2. The perception of object motion.
D. Perception of color.
1. The physiology of color perception.
2. The psychology of color perception.
E. Perception of time.
1. The perception of duration.
2. The perception of temporal order.
.
III. Factors influencing perception.
A. Attention.
1. The role of attention in perception.
2. Selective attention.
B. Expectations and past experiences.
1. The role of prior knowledge in perception.
2. The influence of expectations on perception.
C. Emotion and motivation.
1. The influence of emotion on perception.
2. The influence of motivation on perception.
D. Development.
1. The development of sensory and perceptual abilities in children.
2. Age-related changes in sensation and perception.
E. Drugs and alcohol.
1. The effects of drugs on perception.
2. The effects of alcohol on perception.Pt2Deeper_The Hierarchy_of_Human_Cognition_and_Behavior

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